AbstractPathogens are the principal cause of water body impairment for 303(d) listed waters in Texas and across the United States with 10,654 impairments nationally (TCEQ 2012; USEPA 2013). In Texas, 45% of 568 total impairments are caused by elevated bacteria levels (TCEQ 2012). Models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) have been used for assessing bacterial sources and loading. Other simplistic microbial models, such as the Potential Nonpoint Pollution Index (PNPI), Spatially Explicit Delivery MODel (SEDMOD), and Spatially Explicit Load Enrichment Calculation Tool (SELECT), have been developed to rank potential pollution impacts from nonpoint sources and identify critical areas primarily using land use and geomorphology
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