Chemical Characterization of Cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco, L) Seed Oil and Seeds

Thais Medeiros de Aguiar, Rensheng Luo, Andréa Almeida Mello, Cristiane Hess Azevedo-Meleiro, Armando Ubirajara Oliveira Sabaa-Srur, Kevin Tran, Robert E. Smith

Abstract


Cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco, L) fruits contains seeds that can produce an edible oil. The goals of this study were to measure the physical chemical properties of the seeds and seed oil and to analyze the oil by 1H and 13C{1H}-NMR to identify the types of fats, as well as the whole seeds by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) linked to atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to quantify the metals. In addition, the fatty acyl composition of the oil was determined by gas chromatography (GC) after hydrolyzing the triacylglycerides in the oil and esterifying the fatty acids produced. The density, refractive index, iodine index and saponification number for cocoplum seed oil were 0.9278 g•mL-1, 1.508, 107 gI2•100 g-1 and 180 mg KOH•g-1, respectively. The seeds contained potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc and copper at concentrations of 340, 93.4, 30, 173, 2.9, 0.8, 0.8 and 0.67 mg•g-1, respectively. They also contained 24.9 g•100 g-1 of total carbohydrates. This included 19.8 and 0.07 g•100 g-1 of insoluble and soluble fiber. The seed oil was found to contain triacylglycerides with a large amount of unsaturated fats, including conjugated linoleic fatty acyls. GC analysis of the hydrolyzed fats indicated the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids in the hydrolysate.


Keywords


Bajuru; Chrysobalanus icaco, L; NMR, fats, conjugated linoleic acid

Full Text:

PDF

References


Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). (1990). AOAC: Official methods of Analysis (Volume 2). Arlington, VA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc.

Barbosa, W. L. R., Peres, A., Gallori, S., & Vincieri, F. F. (2006). Determination of myricetin derivatives in Chrysobalanus icaco L. (Chrysobalanaceae). Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, 16, 333-337.

Brown, S. H. (2011). Chrysobalanus icaco. Retrieved from http://lee.ifas.ufl.edu/Hort/GardenPubsAZ/Cocoplum_Chrysobalanus_icaco.pdf

Cao, Y., Yang, L., Gao, H.-L., Chen, J.-N., Chen, Z.-Y., & Ren, Q.-S. (2007). Re-characterization of three conjugated linolenic acid isomers by GC–MS and NMR. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, 145, 128-133.

de Aguiar, T. M., Sabaa-Srur, A. U. O., & Samico, G.F. (2011). Nutritional potential and physical-chemical properties of coco plum. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Tropical, 41, 102-109.

Feitosa, E. A., Xavier, H. S., & Randau, K. P. (2012). Chrysobalanaceae: traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, 22, 1181-1186.

Guillen, M., & Ruiz, A. (2003). Rapid simultaneous determination by proton NMR of unsaturation and composition of acyl groups in vegetable oils. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 105, 688-696.

Gunstone, F. D., & Subbarao, R. (1967). New tropical seed oils. Part I. conjugated trienoic and tetraenoic acids and their oxo derivatives in the seed oils of Chrysobalanus icaco and Parinarium laurinum. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, 1, 349-359.

Hartman, L., & Lago, R. (1973). Rapid preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from lipids. Laboratory Practice, 22, 475-476.

Instituto Adolfo Lutz. (2008). Metodos Fisico-Quimicos para Analise de Alimentos (1st ed., Vol. 1). Sao Paulo, Brazil: Instituto Adolfo Lutz.

Luo, R., Maia, J. G., de Moraes, M. R., Godoy, H. T., Sabaa-Srur, A. U. O., Tran, K., . . . Smith, R. E. (2013). NMR Analysis of Potentially Neurotoxic Annonaceous Fruits. Journal of Natural Products, 3, 230-241.

Marcel, S. F., Jie, L .K., Pasha, M. K., & Alam, M. S. (1997). Synthesis and nuclear magnetic resonance properties of all geometrical isomers of conjugated linoleic acids. Lipids, 32, 1041-1044.

Radunz, A., He, P., & Schmid, G. H. (1998). Analysis of the seed lipids of Aleuites montana. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C, 53, 305-310.

Smith, R. E. (2015). Medicinal Chemistry -- Fusion of Traditional and Western Medicine (3rd ed., pp. 37, 55-66). Sharjah, U.A.E.: Bentham Science.

White, P. A. S., Araujo, J. M. D., Cercato, L. M., Souza, L. A., Barbosa, A. P. O., . . . Santos, M. R. V. (2016). Chrysobalanus icaco L. leaves normalizes insulin sensitivity and blood glucose and inhibits weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Journal of Medicinal Food, 19, 155-160.

Zhang, A., & Chen, Z. Y. (1997) Oxidative stability of conjugated linoleic acids relative to other polyunsaturated fatty acids. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 74, 1611-1617.