Conceptualizing Factors of Adoption for Head Mounted Displays: Toward an Integrated Multi-Perspective Framework

Ibrahim Halil Yucel, Robert Anthony Edgell


Recent developments in Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) offer radical new ways of exploring and interacting in three dimensional virtual or augmented spaces. However, the literature reveals a gap in terms of predictive adoption factors that address human usage and social constraints. Our investigation was guided by the question, “What are the critical factors that predict HMD adoption?” We used a literature review and discourse analysis approach to conduct exploratory research. As an outcome, our paper contributes a conceptual HMD framework which includes diverse adoption factors from each of three differing perspectives: producer firm-level, general product-level, and HMD-specific. We posit that all three perspectives are necessary for a comprehensive systemic framework that robustly predicts the successful adoption of HMDs in diverse settings. At the firm-level or producer-level, we explore business factors that might impact adoption by applying the Transparency Innovation Models (TIMs) typology. At the product-level, users’ satisfaction with immersions into virtual realms depends on how engaged they become in “flow” states which is influenced by mechanics, dynamics, and aesthetics general design choices. At the HMD-specific level, visual strain, power arrangements, and haptic interaction are important considerations. Also, the paper contributes application case studies of two HMD firms: Oculus and Magic Leap. We argue that the meaningful-TIM approach when distributed across networks of key stakeholders offers greater advantages in terms of enabling open relationships and development processes among critical stakeholders, such as HMD producers, software developers, and potential users. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible future outcomes for HMDs.


Virtual Reality; Head Mounted Displays; Innovation Models; Adoption; MDA; Flow

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