Patterns in Housework and Childcare among Girls and Boys

Dr. Jocelyn Wikle

Abstract


When do girls begin performing household work? While there is clear research discussing household work among women, the development of time-use patterns in household work among girls is not well understood. Around the globe, long before adulthood, many girls begin devoting significant amounts of time to unpaid housework and childcare. In developing coun- tries, girls often make vital contributions to family welfare through caring for family members, transporting water, and gathering fuel. In the United States, a developed country, most girls’ participation in housework begins at a young age, but the time spent performing home duties is substantially less than the time spent by their peers in developing countries. This study de- scribes the evolution of time-use patterns in the United States for girls relative to boys during the childhood and adolescent years. It also illustrates participation rates in home duties, the proportion of girls performing housework on a given day. This study finds that girls partici- pate in home duties significantly more often than boys by age eight and that among girls in- volved in home duties, the time spent in home duties gradually increases through adolescence but remains significantly lower than rates seen among American adult women. Young girls’ and boys’ participation rates in domestic work vary by race, ethnicity, family income, number of parents in the home, and mother’s employment level.


Keywords


housework; gender studies; economics;

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agènor, P., Canuto, O., & da Silva, L. (2010). On gender and growth: The role of intergenerational health externalities and women’s occupational constraints. World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper 5492.

Aguiar, M., & Hurst, E. (2007). Measuring trends in leisure: The allocation of time over five decades. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122(3), 969-1006.

Apps, P., & Rees, R. (2005). Gender, time use and public policy over the life cycle. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 21(3), 439-461.

Astone, N., & McLanahan, S. (1991). Family structure, parental practices, and high school completion. American Sociological Review, 56(2), 309-320.

Beach, D. (1997). Family caregiving: The positive impact on adolescent relationships. The Gerontologist, 37(2), 233-238.

Becker, G. (1985). Human capital, effort and the sexual division of labor. Journal of Labor Economics, 3(1), 33-58.

Bell, C., Gersbach, H., & Schneider, M. (2012). Raising juveniles. Games and Economic Behavior, 74, 32-51.

Berridge, C., & Romich, J. (2011). Raising him…to pull his own weight: Boys’ household work in single-mother households. Journal of Family Is- sues, 32(2), 157-180.

Brooks-Gunn, J., Klebvanov, P., & Duncan, G. (1996). Ethnic Differences in Children’s Intelligence Test Scores: Role of Economic Deprivation, Home Environment, and Maternal Characteristics. Child Development, 67(2), 396-408.

Burda, M., Hamermesh, D., & Weil, P. (2013). Total work and gender: Facts and possible explanations. Journal of Population Economics, 26(1), 239-261.

Call, K., Mortimer, J., & Shanahan, M. (1995). Help- fulness and the development of competence in adolescence. Child Development, 66(1), 129-138.

Cheal, D. (2003). Children’s home responsibilities: Factors predicting children’s household work. Social Behavior and Personality, 31, 789-794.

Copperman, R., & Bhat, C. (2010). Children’s activity travel patterns and implications for activity-based travel demand modeling. Compendium of Papers, Transportation Research Board 89th Annual Meeting. Washington, DC.

d’Adda, G., Goldstein, M., Zivin, J., Nangami, M., & Thirumurthy, H. (2009). ARV treatment and time allocation to household tasks: Evidence from Kenya. African Development Review, 21(1), 180-208.

Dodson, L., & Dickert, J. (2004). Girls’ family labor in low-income households: A decade of qualitative research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(2), 318-332.

East, P. (2010). Children’s provision of family care- giving: Benefit or burden? Child Development Perspectives, 4(1), 55-61.

Gager, C., Cooney, T., & Call, K. (1999). The effects of family characteristics and time use on teenagers’ household labor. Journal of Marriage and Family, 61(4), 982-994.

Greenwood, J., Seshadri, A., & Yorukoglu, M. (2005). Engines of liberation. Review of Economic Studies, 72(1), 109-133.

Guarcello, L., & Lyon, S. (2003). Children’s work and water access in Yemen. A Report from Under- standing Children’s Work—An Inter-Agency Research Cooperation Project. Florence, Italy.

Hamermesh, D., & Trejo, S. (2012). How do immigrants spend their time? The process of assimilation. Journal of Population Economics, 26(2), 507-530.

Hilbrecht, M., Zuzanek, J., & Mannell, R. (2008). Time use, time pressure and gendered behavior in early and late adolescence. Sex Roles, 58, 342-

Hofferth, S., & Sandberg, J. (2001). How American children spend their time. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63(2), 295-308.

Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan (2010). The Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement: User Guide for CDS-II. Retrieved from http://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/CDS/cdsii_userGd.pdf

Kalenkoski, C., & Ribar, D. (2011). How do adolescents spell time use? Research in Labor Economics, 33, 1-44.

Kalenkoski, C., & Pabilonia, S. (2012). Time to work or time to play: The effect of student employment on homework, sleep, and screen time. Labour Economics, 19(2), 211-221.

Korenman, S., Liao, M., & O’Neill, J. (2005). Gender differences in time use and labor market out- comes. Presented at the American Time Use Survey Early Results Conference. Bethesda, MD.

Kruger, D., & Berthelon, M. (2007). Work and schooling: The role of household activities among girls in Brazil. Retrieved from http://www.research- gate.net/publication/228586930_Work_and_ schooling_the_role_of_household_activities_ among_girls_in_Brazil

Kupermine, G., Jurkovic, G., & Casey, S. (2009). Relation of filial responsibility to the personal and social adjustment of Latino adolescents from immigrant families. Journal of Family Psychology,

(1), 14-22.

Oettinger, G. (1999). Does high school employment affect high school academic performance? Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 53(1), 136-151.

Stewart, R., & Martin, R. (1984). Sibling relations: The role of conceptual perspective-taking in the ontogeny of sibling caregiving. Child Devel- opment, 55(4), 1322-1332.

van Selm, A. (2005). Gender issues in child labor. World Bank, Poverty Reduction and Economic Development Notes.

Weiss, Y. (2009). Work and leisure: A history of ideas. Journal of Labor Economics, 27, 1-20.

Wight, V., Price, J., Bianchi, S., & Hunt, B. (2009). The time use of teenagers. Social Science Research, 38, 792-809.

Zick, C., & Allen, C. (1996). The impact of parents’ marital status on the time adolescents spend in productive activities. Family Relations, 45, 65-71.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.