Metabolic and Cardiovascular Response to the CrossFit Workout ‘Cindy’
Keywords:CrossFit, High-Intensity Exercise, VO2, HR
Metabolic and Cardiovascular Response to the CrossFit workout ’CINDY’. CrossFit is a fast growing sport of fitness that not only serves as a form of competition but as a form of general exercise training. Little is known about this young conditioning program and a better understanding of the metabolic and cardiovascular demands is needed. PURPOSE: It is the purpose of this study is to examine the acute metabolic and cardiovascular demands of a named CrossFit workout using semi- to well-trained subjects. METHODS: 7 men and 2 women (mean age = 27.2 ± 9.6) who have trained in CrossFit for at least 3 months participated in the study. Each subject performed a graded exercise test on a treadmill to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). All subjects performed the named CrossFit workout called ‘CINDY’, which consisted of as many rounds possible of 5 pull-ups, 10 push-ups, and 15 air squats in 20-minutes. A portable metabolic analyzer was used to record volume of oxygen consumption (VO2) and rate of caloric expenditure (kcals.min-1). The subjects also wore a portable heart rate (HR) monitor. Means ± SD were determined for the following variables: VO2, %VO2max, HR, %HRmax, kcals.min-1, METs and total kcals. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that ‘CINDY’ resulted in average VO2 of 33.3 ± 5.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, which corresponded to 63.8 ± 12.3 % VO2max. In addition, the workout elicited a heart rate of 170.8 ± 13.5 beats.min-1. Furthermore, the subjects expended 13 ± 2.9 kcals.min-1, corresponding with a total caloric expenditure 260.6 ± 59.3 kcals. The average MET level was 9.5 ± 1.5. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that ‘CINDY’ could be classified as “vigorous intensity” based on established American College of Sports Medicine HRmax guidelines i.e., between 76 - 96 % of HRmax, while VO2max parameters where classified as “moderate intensity” i.e., between 46 to 64% of VO2max. Further investigation is needed to compare the metabolic response of other popular CrossFit workouts.
Monteiro AG, D A A . Acute physiological responses to different circuit training protocols. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 2008;48(4):438-42. Available from: http://www.scholaruniverse.com/ncbi-linkout?id=18997645 PubMed PMID: 18997645. [Google Scholar]
Ainsworth BE. Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32(9):498-504. Available from: http://www.scholaruniverse.com/ncbi-linkout?id=10993420 PubMed PMID: 10993420. [Google Scholar]
Allen TE, Byrd RJ, Smith DP. Hemodynamic Consequences of Circuit Weight Training. Research Quarterly. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation 1976;47(3):299-306. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/exerciseandphysicalfitness.html PubMed PMID: 1069316. [Google Scholar]
Rodahl K, &.o, , Rodahl K. Textbook of work physiology. 1970. [Google Scholar]
Babraj JA. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males. BMC Endocrine Disorders 2009;9(1):3. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6823/9/3 PubMed PMID: 19175906. doi: 10.1186/1472-6823-9-3. [Google Scholar]
Beckham SG, Earnest CP. Metabolic cost of free weight circuit weight training. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 2000;40(2):118-125. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/exerciseandphysicalfitness.html PubMed PMID: 11034431. [Google Scholar]
Bf H. Effects of high-intensity strength training on cardiovascular function. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 1984;16(5):483-488. [Google Scholar]
Bloomer RJ. Energy cost of moderate-duration resistance and aerobic exercise. Journal of strength and conditioning research. National Strength & Conditioning Association 2005;19(4):878-882. Available from: http://www.scholaruniverse.com/ncbi-linkout?id=16287370 PubMed PMID: 16287370. doi: 10.1519/R-16534.1. [Google Scholar]
Borresen J, Lambert MI. Autonomic control of heart rate during and after exercise : measurements and implications for monitoring training status. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z 2008;38(8):633-646. Available from: http://www.scholaruniverse.com/ncbi-linkout?id=18620464 PubMed PMID: 18620464. [Google Scholar]
Borst C. Mechanisms of initial heart rate response to postural change. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology 1982;243(5):676-681. [Google Scholar]
Burleson MA. Effect of weight training exercise and treadmill exercise on post-exercise oxygen consumption: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 1998;30(4):518-522. [Google Scholar]
Collins MA. Relationship of heart rate to oxygen uptake during weight lifting exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1991;23(5):636-640. Available from: http://www.scholaruniverse.com/ncbi-linkout?id=2072844 PubMed PMID: 2072844. [Google Scholar]
Esfarjani F, Laursen PB. Manipulating high-intensity interval training: Effects on , the lactate threshold and 3000 m running performance in moderately trained males. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 2007;10(1):27-35. Available from: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@rn+50-21-5 PubMed PMID: 16876479. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2006.05.014. [Google Scholar]
Farrar RE, Mayhew JL, Koch AJ. Oxygen cost of kettlebell swings. Journal of strength and conditioning research. National Strength & Conditioning Association 2010;24(4):1034-1036. [Google Scholar]
Garber CE. Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory, Musculoskeletal, and Neuromotor Fitness in Apparently Healthy Adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2011;43(7):1334-1359. Available from: http://www.scholaruniverse.com/ncbi-linkout?id=21694556 PubMed PMID: 21694556. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb. [Google Scholar]
Glassman, G., Foundations by Greg Glassman. CrossFit Journal. Available at: http://journal.crossfit.com/2002/04/foundations.tpl [Accessed May 21, 2013a].
Glassman, G., Understanding CrossFit by Greg Glassman. CrossFit Journal. Available at: http://journal.crossfit.com/2007/04/understanding-crossfit-by-greg.tpl#featureArticleTitle [Accessed May 21, 2013b].
Helgerud J. Aerobic high-intensity intervals improve VO2max more than moderate training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2007;39(4):665-671. Available from: http://ClinicalTrials.gov/search/term=17414804%20%5BPUBMED-IDS%5D PubMed PMID: 17414804. doi: 10.1249/mss.0b013e3180304570. [Google Scholar]
Hurley BF. Effects of high-intensity strength training on cardiovascular function. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1984;16(5):483-488. PubMed PMID: 6513767. [Google Scholar]
Lagally KM. Physiologic and metabolic responses to a continuous functional resistance exercise workout. Journal of strength and conditioning research. National Strength & Conditioning Association 2009;23(2):373-379. Available from: http://www.scholaruniverse.com/ncbi-linkout?id=19197213 PubMed PMID: 19197213. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31818eb1c9. [Google Scholar]
Laursen PB, Jenkins DG. The Scientific Basis for High-Intensity Interval Training. Sports Medicine 2002;32(1):53-73. PubMed PMID: 11772161. [Google Scholar]
Mitchell JH, Kaufman MP, Iwamoto GA. The Exercise Pressor Reflex: Its Cardiovascular Effects, Afferent Mechanisms. and Central Pathways. Annual Review of Physiology 1983;45(1):229-242. [Google Scholar]
Howley E, &.k, , Howley E. Exercise physiology: Theory and application to fitness. In: Exercise physiology: Theory and application to fitness. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011. [Google Scholar]
Sg B, Cp E. Metabolic cost of free weight circuit weight training. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 2000;40(2):118-125. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/exerciseandphysicalfitness.html PubMed PMID: 11034431. [Google Scholar]
Smith MM. Crossfit-based high intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association 2013;27(11):3159-3172. PubMed PMID: 23439334. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318289e59f. [Google Scholar]
Stanforth D, Stanforth P, Hoemeke M. Physiologic and Metabolic Responses to a Body Pump Workout. : The. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. Available at: Http://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Fulltext/2000/05000/Physiologic_and_Metabolic_Responses_to_a_Body_Pump.5.aspx [Accessed June 2014;21. [Google Scholar]
Tabata I. Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and ??VO2max: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 1996;28(10):1327-1330. [Google Scholar]
Talanian JL. Two weeks of high-intensity aerobic interval training increases the capacity for fat oxidation during exercise in women. Journal of Applied Physiology 2007;102(4):1439-1447. Available from: http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17170203 PubMed PMID: 17170203. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01098.2006. [Google Scholar]
Wilmore JH. Energy cost of circuit weight training. Medicine and science in sports. Med Sci Sports 1978;10(2):75-78. Available from: http://www.scholaruniverse.com/ncbi-linkout?id=692305 PubMed PMID: 692305. [Google Scholar]
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).