Terrain Factors for Predicting Walking and Load Carriage Energy Costs: Review and Refinement
Keywords:metabolic cost, modeling, military
The ability to predict the energy cost of load carriage is important to various disciplines and applications including anthropology, exercise physiology, humanitarian aid, and dismounted military operations. Energy consumption in turn determines the physiological status of individuals and populations and their ability to function via internal heat production, hydration, fatigue, and caloric intake. Various parameters of the physical environment, including topographic relief and surface conditions impact those energy costs. To be comprehensive, predictive load carriage cost models must incorporate body mass, load, positive and negative grades, and adjustments for surface conditions. Models developed at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) in the 1970s incorporated an adjustment for surface conditions, i.e. a terrain factor. However, the terrain factors were derived empirically from data for a relatively limited set of surface conditions or classes. Aside from efforts to apply the classification of terrain factors to a broader set of conditions, little work has been done on to improve terrain factors since the 1970s. This paper reviews the effect of terrain properties on locomotion, the development of terrain factors, and provides scientific improvements based on the parallel studies of vehicular trafficability at the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research Engineering Laboratory (CRREL).
Givoni, B. and R. F. Goldman (1971). Predicting metabolic energy cost. J. Appl. Physiol. 30(3): 429-433. 1971.
Soule, R.G. and R.F. Goldman (1972) Terrain coefficients for energy cost prediction. Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 32, No. 5, May 1972.
Pandolf, K.B. B. Givoni and R.F. Goldman (1977) Predicting energy expenditure with loads while standing or walking very slowly. J Appl Physiol 43:577-581, 1977.
Pimental, N.A. and K.B. Pandolf (1979) Energy expenditure while standing or walking slowly uphill or downhill with loads, Ergonomics, 22:8, 963-973. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140137908924
Pimental, N.A., Y. Shapiro and K.B. Pandolf (1982) Comparison of uphill and downhill walking and concentric and eccentric cycling, Ergonomics, 25:5, 373-380.
Santee, W.R., L.A. Blanchard, M.G. Small J.A. Gonzalez W.T. Matthew and K.L. Speckman (2001) The impact of load and grade on energy expenditure during load carriage, part II: field study. USARIEM Technical Report T01-11.
Santee W.R., M. G. Small and L.A. Blanchard (2003a) Application of Energy Cost Algorithms for Load Carriage to Field Data. Journal of the Human-Environmental System,Vol. 6; No.2: 69-76. 2003
Passmore, R., and J. V. G. A. Durnin (1955). Human energy expenditure. Physiol. Rev. 35: 801-840. http://physrev.physiology.org/content/35/4/801.full.pdf
Santee, W.R., L.A. Blanchard, K.L. Speckman, J.A. Gonzalez, and R.F. Wallace (2003b). Load Carriage Model Development and Testing with Field Data. Technical Note No. TN03-3, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA.
Lejeune, T.M., P.A. Willems and N.C. Heglund (1998) Mechanics and energetic of human locomotion on sand. The Journal of Experimental Biology 201, 2071–2080 (1998)
Crowell, H.P. III; A.S. Krausman, W.H. Harper, J.A. Faughn, M.A. Sharp, R.P. Mello, T. Smith, J.F. Patton (1999) Cognitive and Physiological Performance of Soldiers While They Carry Loads Over Various Terrains. ARL-TR-1779, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Human Research & Engineering Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.
Zamparo, P., R. Perini, C. Orizio, M. Sacher, G. Ferretti (1992) The energy cost of walking or running on sand. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 65:2:183-187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00705078
Strydom, N.B., G.A. G. Bredell, A.J.S. Benade, J.F. Morrison, J.H. Viljoen, and C.H. Van Graan (1966) The Metabolic Cost of Marching at 3 M.P.H. Over Firm and Sandy Surfaces. Int. Z. angew. Physiol. einschl. Arbeitsphysiol. 23, 166-171 (1966)
Winsmann, F.R. and F. Daniels, Jr. (1956) Pack Carrying in the Desert. Technical Report EP 28. U.S. Army Quartermaster Center, Natick, MA.
Daniels, Jr., F., J.H. Vanderbie, and F.R. Winsmann (1953) Energy cost of treadmill walking compared to road walking. Report 220, Natick QM Research & Development Laboratory, Lawrence, MA.
Miller, J.M. (1983)."Slippery" work surfaces: Towards a performance definition and quantitative coefficient of friction criteria." J. Safety Res. 14(4): 145-158.
Rush, E.S. and A.A. Rula (1967) A limited study of effects of soil strength on walking speed. Miscellaneous Paper No. 4-950, U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
Soule, R.G and C.K. Levy (1972) Voluntary march rate over natural terrains. Federation Proceedings Abs. 31,312.
Bullock, C.D. (1994) Methodology for the Development of Inference Algorithms for Worldwide Application of Interim Terrain Data to the NATO Reference Mobility Model. Technical Report GL-94-37, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
Durst, P.J., G.L. Mason, B. McKinley, and A. Baylot (2010) Predicting RMS surface roughness using fractal dimension and PSD parameters. J. Terramechanics 2010 doi:10.1016/j.jterra.2010.05.004.
Durst, P.J., A. Baylot, B. McKinley, and G.L. Mason (in press) A General Model for Inferring Terrain Surface Roughness as a Root-Mean-Square to Predict Vehicle Off-Road Ride Quality. Int. J. Vehicle Design, in press.
Voloshina, A.S. A.D. Kuo, M.A. Daley, D.P. Ferris (2012) Biomechanical and Energetic Consequences of Walking on Uneven Terrain. Presented at the Dynamic Walking Conferece May 2012, Pensacola, FL. http://dynamicwalking.org/dw2012/, video of presentation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dfPNUGlBd5A and extended abstract: http://www.ihmc.us/dwc2012files/Voloshina.pdf
Voloshina, A. S., & Ferris, D. P. (2015). Biomechanics and energetics of running on uneven terrain. The Journal of experimental biology (accepted).
Paysant, J., C. Beyaert, A-M. Datie, N. Martinet, and J-M. Andre (2006) Influence of terrain on metabolic and temporal gait characteristics of unilateral transtibial amputees. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 43:2,153-160.
White, R.G., and M.K. Yousef (1978) Energy expenditure in reindeer walking on roads and on tundra. Can. J. Zool. 56: 215-223.
Amor, A F. and J.A. Vogel (1974) Energy Cost of Man-Packing the Swingfire Missile, Army Personnel Research Establishment Farnborough (United Kingdom), Jan-1974, ADB001376
Friedl , K., and Santee, W. R. (2012). Military Quantitative Physiology: Problems and Concepts in Military Operational Medicine. Government Printing Office.
Minetti, A.E., C. Moia, G.S. Roi, D. Susta and G. Ferretti (2002) Energy cost of walking and running at extreme uphill and downhill slopes. J. Appl. Physiol. 93:1039-1046, doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01177.2001
Minetti, A.E., L.P. Ardigo, E.M. Capodaglio and F. Saibene (2001) Energetics and Mechanics of Human Walking at Oscillating Speeds. Amer. Zool., 41:205–210 (2001)
Jobe, R. T., and P. S. White (2009) A new cost-distance model for human accessibility and an evaluation of accessibility bias in permanent vegetation plots in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA, J Vegetation Sci 20:6, 1099-1109.
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).