Static and dynamic stretching and its effects on hamstring flexibility, horizontal jump, vertical jump, and a 50 meter sprint

Kimberly Berenbaum, Binh Bui, Sal Megaro, Melissa A Whidden

Abstract


Preactivity stretching is commonly performed by active individuals as part of their warm-up routine.  While both static and dynamic stretching are techniques utilized by the everyday exerciser, it has been questioned as to whether these types of stretching protocols can be harmful or beneficial to anaerobic exercise performance.  The current literature on stretching has also been biased toward athletes.  Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether 3 weeks of either static or dynamic hamstring stretching affects range of motion (ROM) and anaerobic exercise performance in recreationally active individuals.  Twenty two healthy college-aged students were randomly divided into three groups; static stretching (n=9), dynamic stretching (n=8), or no-stretch control (n=5).  Subjects completed three weeks of the stretching protocol with measurements taken before and after the stretching regimen.  ROM of the hamstrings were measured via the sit and reach test and the active knee extension test (AKET) while three variables of anaerobic performance (horizontal jump, vertical jump, and 50 meter sprint) were analyzed.  Statistical analysis showed no significant differences (P<0.05) between groups for the horizontal jump (P=0.261), vertical jump (P=0.983), or the 50 meter sprint (P=0.899).  Furthermore, three weeks of either static or dynamic hamstring stretching did not improve ROM in our active subjects.  Therefore, based on the current investigation, static stretching does not negatively impact anaerobic exercise performance, while dynamic stretching may not be as beneficial to an exercise routine as previously thought.


Keywords


static, dynamic, stretching, vertical jump, horizontal jump

Full Text:

PDF

References


American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010.

ACSM issues new recommendations on quantity and quality of exercise. (n. d.). In American College of Sports Medicine.

Bazett-Jones, D. M., Gibson, M. H., and McBride, J. M. Sprint and vertical jump performances are not affected by six weeks of static hamstring stretching. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 22(1): 25-31, 2008.

Bradley, P.S., Olsen, P.D., and Portas, M.D. The effect of static, ballistic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 21(1): 223-226, 2007.

Davis, D. S., Ashby, P. E., McCale, K. L., McQuain, J. A., and Wine, J. M. The effectiveness of 3 stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility using consistent stretching parameter. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 19(1): 27- 32, 2005.

Fredrick, G. A., and Szymanski, D. J. Baseball (part 1): dynamic flexibility. Strength Cond J . 23(1): 21–30, 2001.

Fukashiro, S., Besier, T. F., Barrett, R., Cochrane, J., Nagano, A., and Lloyd, D. G. Direction control in standing horizontal and vertical jumps. International Journal

of Sport and Health Science, 3: 272-279, 2005.

Hayes, P.R, and Walker, A. Pre-exercise stretching does not impact upon running economy. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 21(4): 1227-1232, 2007.

Hunter, J.P. and Marshall, R.N. Effects of power and flexibility training on vertical jump technique. Official Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine. 34 (3): 478-486, 2002.

Jaggers, J. R., Swank, A. M., Frost, K. L., and Lee, C. D. The acute effects of dynamic and ballistic stretching on vertical jump height, force, and power. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 22(6): 1844-1849, 2008.

Nelson, A. G., Driscoll, N. M., Landin, D. K., Young, M. A., and Schexnayder, I. C. Acute effects of passive muscle stretching on sprint performance. Journal of Sports Sciences. 23 (5): 449-454, 2005.

Samuel, M. N., Holcomb, W. R., Guadagnoli, M. A., Rubley, M. D., and Wallmann, H. Acute effects of static and ballistic stretching on measures of strength and power. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 5: 1422-1428, 2008.

Shrier, I. Does stretching improve performance? A systematic and critical review of the literature. Clin J Sports Med. 14: 267–273, 2004.

Stone, M., O’Bryant, H. S., Ayers, C., and Sands, W. A., Stretching: acute and Chronic? The potential consequences. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 28 (6): 66-74, 2006.

Winchester, J. B., Nelson, A. G., Landin, D., Young, M. A., and Schenayder, I. C. Static stretching impairs sprint performance in collegiate track and field athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 22(1): 13-18, 2008.

Worrell, T.W., Smith, T.L., and Winegardner, J. Effect of hamstring stretching on hamstring muscle performance. Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 20(3): 154-158, 1994.

Yamaguchi, T. and Ishii, K. Effects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 19(3): 677-683, 2005.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.12922/jshp.v3i4.65

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 

 JSHP is hosted by the Mary and Jeff Bell Library, at Texas A&M University- Corpus Christi.