EFFECT OF WAVE-CURRENT INTERACTION ON WAVES AND CIRCULATION OVER GEORGES BANK DURING STORM EVENTS

Dongmei Xie, Qingping Zou

Abstract


The coupled spectral wave and circulation model SWAN+ADCIRC was applied to investigate the wave-current interaction during storm events over Georges Bank, a large shallow submarine bank on the eastern seaboard of North America that separates Gulf of Maine from the North Atlantic Ocean. The current over the Georges Bank displays a rotary feature over a tidal cycle. The wave-induced current is in the same order as the wind-driven current and generally in the same direction as the depth-averaged tidal current, indicating strong nonlinear wave-current interaction. The magnitude of wave-induced current reaches 0.07 m/s at low tide and 0.2 m/s at the other three tidal phases. The effect of wave-current interaction on waves at the four tidal phases is also analyzed. The role of Georges Bank in dissipating wave energy is most significant at rising mid-tide and high tide, which is close to the storm peak. At rising mid-tide, the wave height is decreased by 0.3 m to 0.5 m over the majority of the bank when the wave propagates in the same direction as the current. At falling-mid tide, the wave height is increased by 0.5 m at the southern flank and decreased by 0.5 m at the northern flank of the bank.

Keywords


SWAN; ADCIRC; wave-induced current; Georges Bank

Full Text:

PDF

References


Booij, N., Ris R. C., Holthuijsen, L. H. 1999. A third-generation wave model for coastal regions: 1. Model description and validation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 104(C4): 7649–7666.

Brown, W. S. 1984. A comparison of Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine and New England shelf tidal dynamics, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 14(1), 145-167.

Bunya, S., Dietrich, J. C., Westerink, J. J., Ebersole, B. A., Smith, J. M., Atkinson, J. H., Jensen, R., Resio, D. T., Luettich, R. A. Jr, Dawson, C., Cardone, V. J., Cox, A. T., Powell, M. D., Westerink, H. J., Roberts, H. J. 2010. A high-resolution coupled riverine flow, tide, wind, wind wave, and storm surge model for southern Louisiana and Mississippi. Part I: Model development and validation, Monthly Weather Review, 138(2): 345-377.

Dietrich, J. C., Zijlema, M., Westerink, J. J., Holthuijsen, L. H., Dawson, C., Luettich Jr, R. A., Stone, G. W. 2011. Modeling hurricane waves and storm surge using integrally-coupled, scalable computations, Coastal Engineering, 58(1), 45-65.

Franks, P. J., Chen, C. 2001. A 3-D prognostic numerical model study of the Georges Bank ecosystem. Part II: biological–physical model, Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 48(1), 457-482.

Garratt, J. R. 1977. Review of drag coefficients over oceans and continents, Monthly Weather Review, 105(7): 915-929.

Greenburg, D. A. 1983. Modeling the mean barotropic circulation in the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 13, 886-904.

Limeburner, R., Beardsley, R. C. 1996. Near-surface recirculation over Georges Bank, Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 43(7), 1547-1574.

Longuet-Higgins, M. S., Stewart, R. W. 1964. Radiation stresses in water waves; a physical discussion, with applications, Deep Sea Research, 11(4), 529-562.

Luettich. R. A. Jr, Westerink, J. J., Scheffner, N. W. 1992. ADCIRC: an advanced three-dimensional circulation model for shelves, coasts and estuaries. Report 1. Theory and methodology of ADCIRC-2DDI and ADCIRC-3DL, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Technical Report DRP-92-6.

Luettich, R. A. Jr, Westerink, J. J. 2006 ADCIRC: A (parallel) advanced circulation model for oceanic, coastal and estuarine waters; users manual for version 51.

Marrone, J. F. 2008 Evaluation of impacts of the Patriots’ Day storm (April 15-18, 2007) on the New England coastline, Solutions to Coastal Disasters: 507-517.

Naimie, C. E. 1996. Georges Bank residual circulation during weak and strong stratification periods: prognostic numerical model results, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 101(C3), 6469-6486.

Pettigrew, N. R., Churchill, J. H., Janzen, C. D., Mangum, L. J., Signell, R. P., Thomas, A. C., Townsend, D. W., Wallinga, J. P., Xue, H. 2005. The kinematic and hydrographic structure of the Gulf of Maine Coastal Current. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 52(19), 2369-2391.

Ris, R. C., Holthuijsen, L. H., Booij, N. 1999 A third-generation wave model for coastal regions: 2. Verification. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 104(C4): 7649–7666.

Sebastian, A., Proft, J., Dietrich, J. C., Du, W., Bedient, P. B., Dawson, C. N. 2014. Characterizing hurricane storm surge behavior in Galveston Bay using the SWAN+ ADCIRC model, Coastal Engineering, 88, 171-181.

Sun, Y., Chen, C., Beardsley, R. C., Xu, Q., Qi, J., Lin, H. 2013. Impact of current-wave interaction on storm surge simulation: A case study for Hurricane Bob, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118(5), 2685-2701.

Westerink, J. J., Luettich, R. A. Jr, Blain, C. A., Scheffner, N. W. 1994 ADCIRC: an advanced three-dimensional circulation model for shelves, coasts and estuaries. Report 2: users’ manual for ADCIRC-2DDI, Technical Report DRP-92-6, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Xie, D. M., Zou, Q. P., Cannon, J. W. 2016. Application of SWAN+ ADCIRC to tide-surge and wave simulation in Gulf of Maine during Patriot's Day storm, Water Science and Engineering, 9(1), 33-41.

Xue, H., Chai, F., Pettigrew, N. R. 2000. A model study of the seasonal circulation in the Gulf of Maine, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 30(5), 1111-1135.

Zijlema, M. 2010. Computation of wind-wave spectra in coastal waters with SWAN on unstructured grids. Coastal Engineering, 57(3): 267-277.

Zou, Q., Bowen, A. J., Hay, A. E. 2006. The vertical distribution of wave shear stress in variable water depth: theory and field observations, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 111:C09032.

Zou, Q., Xie, D. 2016. Tide-surge and wave interaction in the Gulf of Maine during an extratropical storm, Ocean Dynamics, 66(12), 1715-1732.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.9753/icce.v35.waves.18