Takaaki Uda, Masumi Serizawa, Shiho Miyahara


The morphological characteristics of the cuspate forelands located in Gardiners Bay on Long Island, New York, and Ukraine Bay in the Black Sea, and a land-tied island in Vietnam were investigated. The BG model (a model for predicting three-dimensional beach changes based on Bagnold’s concept) was used to predict the development of a cuspate foreland, when an island is located offshore of the cuspate foreland and waves are incident from two opposite directions. It was found that a cuspate foreland elongates toward the lee of the island owing to the wave-sheltering effect of an island. The formation of a land-tied island when five islands and two sand sources are located on opposite shores was also predicted using the BG model.


cuspate foreland; numerical simulation; BG model; Ukraine Bay; Gardiners Bay

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