TYPHOONS DRIVEN MORPHODYNAMICS OF THE WAN-TZU-LIAO SAND BARRIER (TAÏWAN)

Lucie Campmas, Frédéric Bouchette, Samuel Meule, Lise Petitjean, Damien Sous, Jiing-Yih Liou, Romain Leroux-Mallouf, François Sabatier, Hwung-Hweng Hwung

Abstract


This study focuses on the dynamics of the Wan-Tzu-Liao sand barrier when it is struck by one typhoon, a group of typhoons or the whole season of typhoons and monsoon. In the framework of the KUN-SHEN project, 7 months of monitoring (2011-2012) provided 20 topobathymetric surveys (within a 200 m long segment of the barrier from the subtidal zone to the back-barrier) and acquisitions of offshore, nearshore and shallow water hydrodynamics including velocity profiling, free surface measurement and absolute pressure. Offshore waves were extracted at Cigu buoy (18 m of water depth). Nearshore waves were acquired from the current profiler deployed 400 m off the coast in 4 m of water depth and water level on the subaerial beach were acquired from two pressure sensors deployed in the lower part of the subtidal zone and the dune crest. Morphologic changes of the emerged beach were monitored using D-GPS each week during winter monsoon season and just before and after each event during summer typhoons season. Amongst the eight studied typhoons, TALIM is the most energetic event observed. Offshore wave height reached H s = 10.34 m (T p = 14.6 s) at Cigu buoy and H s = 2.3 m (T p = 13.4 s) at the profiler. Surface waves dynamics throughout surf and swash zones are progressively dominated by infragravity motions. A part of the dune is surged at the storm apex. Morphological changes include 6.7 m of dunefoot retreat and a sand transfer from a dune breach to wash-over deposits in the lagoon. More surprisingly, the foreshore was nourished (2261 m3 +/- 268 m3 ) as well as the whole sand barrier (+1920 m3 +/- 1071 m3 ). The sand input is concomitant to the redistribution of sand from the intertidal sandbars interpreted as the ultimate stage of the subtidal bars landward migration. Although winter are erosive season (-4995 m3 +/- 1071 m3 ), the summer results in an accretion period (3556 m3 +/-1071 m3 ) with a shoreline seaward shift about 10.4 m. Over the annual time period, the sand barrier recorded 18.4 m of retreat coupled with a small sand loss (-1439 m3 +/- 1071 m3 ) without any significant abrasion of the dune-top.

Keywords


typhoon; moderate/extreme storm-impact; morphodynamics

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.9753/icce.v34.sediment.50