Gosse Jan Steendam, Andre Van Hoven, Jentsje Van der Meer, Gijs Hoffmans


Previous tests performed with the Wave Overtopping Simulator showed that objects on dikes may impose a weak spot. To investigate this conclusion further in 2013, within the Dutch program SBW (Strength and Loads on Water Defences), new wave overtopping tests have been performed. These tests were particularly aimed at the influence of transitions between the soft cover layer of clay and grass on dikes with hard structures like asphalt and concrete. In these tests research was performed on the behaviour of the grass cover by wave overtopping at the direct interaction between grass cover and the hard obstacle or cover. Specific tests were performed to determine the critical velocity of the grass covered slope, which is used in the cumulative overload method, and the influence of objects on that. Grass pull tests were also performed with a new developed device and further analysis may give a relationship with the critical velocity.


Dikes, Wave Overtopping, Wave Overtopping Simulator, Grass cover, Grass pulling tests

Full Text:



Deltares, 2013, Evaluation and Model Development - Grass Erosion Test at the Rhine dike, 1207811-002, 1207811-002-HYE-0007-svb, December 2013, DRAFT.

Hoffmans, 2014, G.J.C.M., A. van Hoven, B. Harderman, H.J. Verheij Erosion of grass covers at transitions and objects on dikes, to be presented at Int. Conf. of Scour and Erosion, Perth

Infram, 2013. Factual Report. Overslagproeven Rivierenland. Report 12i071, 19-06-2013.[in Dutch only]

Pijpers, R., 2013, Vulnerability of Structural Transitions in Flood Defences, erosion of grass covers due to wave overtopping, M.Sc. thesis

SBW, 2012-1. SBW Wave overtopping and grass cover strength. Model development. Deltares report 120616-007, June 2012. Authors: Gosse Jan Steendam, Gijs Hoffmans, Jan Bakker, Jentsje van der Meer, Joep Frissel, Maurice Paulissen and Henk Verheij.

SBW, 2012-2. SBW Wave overtopping and grass cover strength. Predictions of Prototype Tests. Deltares report 120616-007, November 2012.

Schüttrumpf, H.F.R. and H. Oumeraci, 2005. “Layer thicknesses and velocities of wave overtopping flow at seadikes.” Coastal Engineering, 52, 6, pp.473–495.

Schüttrumpf, H.F.R. 2001. Wellenüberlaufströmung bei See-deichen, Ph.D.-thesis, Technical University Braunschweig.

Steendam G.J. , Y. Provoost and J.W. van der Meer, 2012,.Destructive wave overtopping and wave run-up tests on grass covered slopes of real dikes, Proceedings International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ICCE 2012, Santander, Spain

Steendam G.J., P. Peeters, J.W. van der Meer, K. van Doorslaer and K. Trouw, 2011. Destructive wave overtopping tests at Flemish dikes, proc. Coastal Structures 2011, Yokohama, Japan

Steendam, G.J., J.W. van der Meer, B. Hardeman and A. van Hoven, 2010. Destructive wave overtopping tests on grass covered landward slopes of dikes and transitions to berms, Proc. ICCE 2010 Shanghai, ASCE, China.

Steendam, G.J., J.W. van der Meer, G. de Raat, W. de Vries and J.Y. Frissel, 2008. Influence of Management and Maintenance on erosive impact of wave overtopping on grass covered slopes of dikes. International Symposium on Floodrisk 2008. Oxford, United Kingdom.

Van der Meer, J.W., P. Bernardini, W. Snijders and H.J. Regeling. 2006. The wave overtopping simulator. ASCE, ICCE 2006, San Diego, pp. 4654 - 4666.

Van der Meer, J.W., P. Bernardini, G.J. Steendam, G.J. Akkerman and G.J.C.M. Hoffmans. 2007. The wave overtopping simulator in action. Proc. Coastal Structures, Venice, Italy.

Van der Meer, J.W., G.J. Steendam, G. de Raat and P. Bernardini. 2008. Further developments on the wave overtopping simulator. ASCE, Proc. ICCE 2008, Hamburg, 2957-2969.

Van der Meer, J.W., R. Schrijver, B. Hardeman, A. van Hoven, H. Verheij and G.J. Steendam. 2009. Guidance on erosion resistance of inner slopes of dikes from three years of testing with the Wave Overtopping Simulator. Proc. ICE, Coasts, Marine Structures and Breakwaters 2009, Edinburgh, UK.

Van der Meer, J.W., B. Hardeman, G.J. Steendam, H. Schüttrumpf and H. Verheij. 2010. Flow depths and velocities at crest and inner slope of a dike, in theory and with the Wave Overtopping Simulator. ASCE, Proc. ICCE 2010, Shanghai.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.9753/icce.v34.structures.79