John-Paul Latham, Jiansheng Xiang, Eleni Anastasaki, Liwei Guo, Nikolaos Karantzoulis, Axelle Vire, Christopher Pain


Numerical modelling has the potential to probe the complexity of the interacting physics of rubble mound armour systems. Through forward modelling of armour unit packs, stochastic variables such as unit displacement and maximum contact force per unit during an external oscillatory disturbance can be predicted. The combined finite- discrete element method (FEMDEM) is a multi-body method ideally suited to model the behaviour of the armour layer system and the stresses generated within complex shape units. In this paper we highlight the latest developments made with the application of FEMDEM technology to breakwater modelling including realistic rock underlayer and concrete unit layer topologies, maximum contact force distributions, internal unit stresses, fracture and unit breakages. Finally, fully coupled wave and multi-body armour unit motion with internal dynamic stress generation is illustrated.


rubble-mound breakwater; concrete armour units; FEMDEM; combined finite-discrete element method; fracture; modelling; wave-structure interaction

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