TSUNAMI INUNDATION MODELING: SENSITIVITY OF VELOCITY AND MOMENTUM FLUX TO BOTTOM FRICTION WITH APPLICATION TO BUILDING DAMAGE AT SEASIDE, OREGON

Hyoungsu Park, Dane M. Wiebe, Daniel T. Cox, Katherine Cox

Abstract


We examine the sensitivity of three different tsunami inundation numerical models using various friction terms. We use the model output to examine the probabilistic damage levels using fragility curves applied over a community scale and resolved at the scale of individual tax lots for Seaside, OR. With this work, we estimate the inundation hazard using the “500 year” tsunami originating from a Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake and then compare the maximum surface elevation, velocity, and momentum flux results across the three models. We find a larger variation in the velocities and momentum fluxes when varying model types and friction coefficients; surface elevation variations are not as large. We also find that absolute velocity and momentum flux are more sensitive to friction factors rather than model type, while surface elevation varies with model type. For the fragility curve analysis, we consider flow depth, velocity, and momentum flux as the intensity measure to estimate the probability of a certain damage level based on the known structure type and characteristic tsunami intensity. We examine the sensitivity of damage levels to various fragility curves, using different intensity measures, and we find that velocity and momentum flux curves provide a more realistic estimate of damage.

Keywords


tsunami inundation; numerical modeling; fragility curve; Cascadia Subduction Zone; ADCIRC; Coulwave; ComMIT/MOST; Seaside

Full Text:

PDF

References


Goldfinger C, Nelson CH, Morey AE, Johnson JE, Patton JR, Karabanov E et al (2012) Turbidite event history—methods and implications for holocene paleoseismicity of the Cascadia subduction zone. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1661–F, 170 p

Gonzalez FI, Geist EL, Jaffe B, Kanoglu U, Mofjeld H, Synolakis CE et al (2009) Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment at Seaside, Oregon, for near- and far-field seismic sources. J Geophys Res 114:1–19

Koshimura S, Oie T, Yanagisawa H, Imanura F (2009) Developing fragility functions for tsunami damage estimation using numerical model and post-tsunami data from Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Coast Eng J51:243–273

Luettich, R. A., & Westerink, J. J. (2004). Formulation and numerical implementation of the 2D/3D ADCIRC finite element model version 44. XX (p. 74).

Lynett, P. and Liu, P. L.-F (2005) A Numerical Study of the Runup Generated by Three-Dimensional Landslides. JGR-Oceans, v. 110, C03006, doi:10.1029/2004JC002443.

Lynett, P., Wu, T., and Liu, P (2002) Modeling wave runup with depth-integrated equations. Coastal Engineering 46: 89-107.

Park, H., Cox, D. T., Lynett, P. J., Wiebe, D. M., & Shin, S (2013) Tsunami inundation modeling in constructed environments: A physical and numerical comparison of free-surface elevation, velocity, and momentum flux. Coastal Engineering, 79, 9-21.

Suppasri A, , Koshimura S, Imamura F (2011) Developing tsunami fragility curves based on the satellite remote sensing and the numerical modeling of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 11:173–189

Suppasri A, Mas E, Charvet I, Gunasekera R, Imai K, Fukutani Y et al. (2013) Building damage characteristics based on surveyed data and fragility curves of the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami. Nat Hazards 319–341

Synolakis, C.E., E.N. Bernard, V.V. Titov, U. Kâno˘glu, and F.I. González (2008): Validation and verification of tsunami numerical models. Pure Appl. Geophys.,165(11–12), 2197–2228

Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group (2006) Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Pilot Study—Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps. Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report 94

Wiebe, D.M. and Cox, D.T. (2014) “Application of Fragility Curves to Estimate Damage and Economic Loss at a Community Scale: A Case Study of Seaside, Oregon,” Natural Hazards, 71, 2043 – 2061.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.9753/icce.v34.currents.1