Paul Knox, Dave Anglin, Andrew Cornett, Erin Hall, Mathew Armstrong


This paper describes the role of physical modelling in the design of a new cruise ship terminal at an exposed site on the coast of Barbados, outside the Port of Bridgetown. Large scale 3D hydraulic model studies were conducted to focus on two of the key technical challenges surrounding the project: the risk of downtime due to excessive ship motions forced by the prevailing winds, seas and swells; and the extreme wave loads and overtopping associated with waves generated by hurricanes. The physical modelling was separated into two phases. The first phase investigated the moored ship response of two different model cruise ship vessels under a range of operational wind and wave conditions. The results of this phase helped determine the range of conditions where the motions of the ships and the associated loads on the portside elements were within acceptable limits, and showed that the expected downtime for the design vessels was satisfactory. The second phase of the study focused on wave-structure interactions, and in particular the impact of extreme waves on the proposed structures, including wave-induced loads on the pier decks, and the wave overtopping and flooding of the landside development. Several innovative measures were developed and tested to accommodate / mitigate the loads on the pier decks as well as reduce the wave overtopping. These physical model studies played a key role in the front end engineering design of the new port, and their results were crucial in assessing various alternatives, optimizing preliminary designs, and validating the layout, costing and construction of the new facility. Due to space limitations, this paper focuses on the second phase of the study, in particular the hydrodynamic loads on the pier decks.


physical modelling; wave uplift loads and pressures; pile support pier decks

Full Text:



Cornett, A., Anglin, D., Elliott, T., 2013. Wave-in-deck loads for an intricate pile supported pier and variation with deck clearance. 32nd International conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering.

Cuomo, G., Tirindelli, M., Allsop, W., 2007. Wave-in-deck loads on exposed jetties. J. Coastal Eng. 54

Cuomo, G., Shimosako, K., Takahashi, S., 2009. Wave-in-deck loads on coastal bridges and the role of air. J. Coastal Eng. 56 (2009)

Cuomo, G., Tirindelli, M., Allsop, N.W.H., 2004. Experimental study of wave-in-deck loads on exposed jetties. Proc. XXIX IDRA, Trento, Italy, vol. 3, pp. 541–547.

Cuomo, G., Allsop, N.W.H., McConnell, K.J., 2003. Dynamic wave loads on coastal structures: analysis of impulsive and pulsating wave loads. Proc. Conf. Coastal Structures 2003. ASCE/COPRI, Portland, pp. 356–368.

El-Ghamry, O.A., 1965. Wave forces on a dock. Technical Report HEL-9-1, Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Institute of Engineering Research. University of California.

Kaplan, P., 1979. Impact forces on horizontal members of an offshore test structure. Proc. of Civ. Eng. in the Oceans IV, San Francisco, CA, USA. ASCE, New York.

Kaplan, P., Murray, J.J., Yu, W.C., 1995. Theoretical Analysis of Wave Impact Forces on Platform Deck Structures. Offshore Technology OMAE, vol. I A. ASME, pp. 189–198.

Knox, P., Anglin, D., Cornett, A., Hall, E., Armstrong, M., 2014. Role of physical modelling in developing a new cruise ship terminal at an exposed site, PIANC, San Francisco

Nordforsk 1987. Assessment of a Ship Performance in a Seaway. Nordic Cooperative Project – Seakeeping Performance of Ships.

OCIMF, 1997. Mooring Equipment Guideline (3rd edition – MEG3), Oil Companies International Marine Forum.

PIANC , 1995. Criteria for Movements of Moored Ships in Harbours, A Practical Guide. Supplement to Bulletin No 88.

ROM 0.2-11, 2012. Recomendaciones para Obras Maritimas – Serie 2, Obras Portuarias Interiores. Recomendaciones para el proyecto y ejecucion en Obras de Atraque y Amarre. Capitulo iV Definicion de los estados y situaciones de proyecto.

Shih, R.W.K., Anastasiou, K., 1992. A laboratory study of the wave induced vertical loading on platform decks. Proc. Conf. ICE. Water Maritime and Energy, vol. 96, 1. Thomas Telford, London, pp. 19–33.

Tirindelli, M., McConnell, K., Allsop, N.W.H., Cuomo, G., 2002. Exposed jetties: inconsistencies and gaps in design methods for wave-induced forces. Proc. 28th ICCE, Cardiff, UK. ASCE, pp. 1684–1696.

Tirindelli, M., Cuomo, G., Allsop, N.W.H., McConnell, K.J., 2003a. Physical model studies of wave-induced forces on exposed jetties: towards new prediction formulae. Proc. Conf. Coastal Structures 2003. ASCE/COPRI, Portland, pp. 382–393.

Tirindelli, M., Cuomo, G., Allsop, N.W.H., Lamberti, A., 2003b. Wave-in-deck forces on jetties and related structures. Proc. conf. ISOPE 2003, Honolulu, Hawaii, pp. 823–830.

Tirindelli, M., Cuomo, G., Allsop, W., Lamberti, A., 2003. Wave-in-deck forces on jetties and related structures. Proc. 13th Int. Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference.

Wang, H., 1970. Water wave pressure on horizontal plate. Journal of the Hydraulic Division. ASCE, pp. 1997– 2016. No.HY10 Oct.1970.