Mohsen Soltanpour, Farzin Samsami, Tomoya Shibayama, Sho Yamao


The dissipation of regular and irregular waves on a muddy bed with the existence of following and opposing currents are investigated through a series of wave flume laboratory experiments. The commercial kaolinite is used as fluid mud layer. The laboratory results show the increase of both regular and irregular wave heights due to opposing currents. On the other hand, the following currents result to the decrease of the wave heights. In the numerical treatment, the deformation of wave due to current was first calculated based on the conservation equation of wave action and then the attenuation of this deformed wave due to the muddy bed is simulated by a multi-layered wave-mud interaction model. Acceptable agreements were observed between the numerical results and laboratory data.


Wave-current interaction; irregular wave; fluid mud; wave dissipation; wave flume experiments

Full Text:



An, N.N., and T. Shibayama. 1994. Wave-current interaction with mud bed, Proc. of 24th Coastal

Engineering Conference, ASCE, 2913-2927.

Bretherton, F.P., and C.J.R. Garrett. 1968. Wavetrains in inhomogeneous moving media, Proc. of the Royal Society, 302(1471), 529-554.

Brevik, I., and B. Aas. 1980. Flume experiment on waves and currents I. Rippled bed, CoastalmEngineering, 3, 149-177.

Dalrymple, R.A. 1974. A finite amplitude wave on a linear shear current, J. Geophysical Research, 79, 4498-4504.

De Wit P.J. and C. Kranenburg. 1996. On the effects of a liquefied mud bed on wave and flow characteristics, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 34:1, 3-18.

Gade, H.G. 1958. Effects of non rigid, impermeable bottom on plane surface wave in shallow water, J

Marine Research, 16, 61-82.

Huang, N.E., D.T. Chen, and C.C. Tung. 1972. Interactions between steady non-uniform currents and gravity waves with applications for current measurements, J. Physical Oceanography, 2, 420-431.

Kaihatu, J.M., and N. Tahvildari. 2012. The combined effect of wave-current interaction and mudinduced damping on nonlinear wave evolution, Ocean Modelling, 41, 22–34.

Longuet-Higgins, M.S., and R. W. Stewart. 1961. The changes in amplitude of short gravity waves on

steady non-uniform currents, J. Fluid Mech., 10, 529-549.

Peregrine, D.H. 1976. Interaction of water waves and currents, Advances in Applied Mechanics, 16, Academic Press, New York, 117 pp.

Soltanpour M., S.A. Haghshenas, and T. Shibayama. 2008. An integrated wave-mud-current interaction model, 31st Coastal Eng. Conf., ASCE, Hamburg, Germany, 2852-2861.

Soltanpour, M., T. Shibayama, and Y. Masuya. 2007. Irregular wave attenuation and mud mass transport, Coastal Eng. Journal, 49, 127-148.

Thomas, G.P. 1981. Wave-current interactions: an experimental and numerical study, Part 1 linear

waves. J. Fluid Mech. 110, 457-474.

Whitham, G.B. 1962. Mass, momentum and energy flux in water waves, J. Fluid Mech., 12, 135-147.

Zhang Q.H. and Z.D. Zhao. 1999. Wave-mud interaction: wave attenuation and mud mass transport, Proc. of Coastal Sediments, 99, 1867-1880.

Zhao, Z.D. and H.Q. Li. 1994. Viscous damping of irregular wave propagation over mud seabeds, Proc. of International Conference in Hydro-Technical Engineering for Port and Harbor Construction, 1291-1300.

Zhao, Z.D., J.J. Lian, and J.Z. Shi. 2006. Interactions among waves, current, and mud: numerical and laboratory studies, Advances in Water Resources, 29, 1731–1744.