Sigurdur Sigurdarson, Jentsje W. van der Meer, Eelco Bijl, Yang Sihan, Tang Qiaoliang, Zhang Xiaoqiang, James KS Goh, Dirk Heijboer


The paper discusses the development of a berm breakwater revetment design for protection of an artificial island on the southern shore of Sri Lanka. The island will primarily be constructed with excavated materials from the Phase 2 Hambantota Port construction activities, which include considerable volumes of slightly weathered rock. A value Engineering Study considered three different design options for the protective revetment: two rock options, conventional rubble mound and berm breakwaters, and an option using Chinapode concrete armour units. There were considerable cost-savings in choosing an Icelandic-type berm breakwater. The geometrical design rules of Icelandic-type berm breakwaters, developed by Van der Meer and Sigurdarson (2014), were used to develop different cross-sections based on different armourstone classes. Based on a quarry yield prediction and hydraulic model studies, the design was optimized using the available rock as efficiently as possible. Refinement of the design during the hydraulic model testing resulted in increased stability of the berm breakwater. Due to lack of experience in the production of large armourstone, the yield of the 5-10 tonnes class was rather low during the first months of construction. A number of measures were recommended resulting in more than tripling the yield.


berm breakwater; Icelandic-type; armourstone; quarry yield; design rules

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