REMOTE MEASUREMENT AND PREDICTION OF BREAKING WAVE PARAMETERS

B. Robertson, I. Nistor, K. Hall, B. Buckham

Abstract


The analysis of wave breaking in shallow water has been on-going for almost 150 years. Numerous research papers have been published that investigate methods to predict breaking conditions and the geometric characteristics of breaking waves. This study presents a novel, safe, and low cost method to extract breaking wave properties from irregular waves in the surf zone, using optical and in-situ measurement systems. Sensitivities studies on methods of measuring the breaking water depth are compared and the water depth at the wave trough depth, corrected for optical offsets using a still water correction of 1/3 wave height, is found to be exhibit the least variability. A new effective seafloor slope definition, based on individual breaking wavelength to depth ratios, was found to increase predictive ability over previously variable seafloor slope extraction methods. Collected field data is compared against established breaking wave height formulas with general exponential form consistently finding best correlation. An optimized breaking wave height predictor featured a root mean square relative error of only 1.672% against the measured dataset. Finally, the study of the geometric shape of the plunging wave vortex as a possible indicator for the breaking intensity of ocean waves has been ongoing for almost 50 years with limited success. The validity of using the vortex ratio and vortex angle as a method of predicting breaking intensity is examined. Through the first complete analysis of field collected irregular wave breaking vortex parameters it is illustrated that the vortex ratio and vortex angle cannot be accurately predicted using standard breaking wave characteristics and hence are not suggested as a possible indicator for breaking intensity

Keywords


breaking waves; remote sensing; wave measurement; vortex parameters; breaker index; surf similarity parameter.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Battjes, J.A., 1974. Surf similarity. Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering: 466 - 479.

Birkemeier, W.A., Donoghue, C., Long, C.E., Hathaway, K.K. and Baron, C.F., 1997. 1990 delilah nearshore experiment: Summary report. US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CHL-97-24: 1 - 217.

Black, K. and Rosenberg, M.A., 1992. Semi-empirical treatment of wave transformation outside and inside the breaker line. Coastal Engineering, 16: 313 - 345.

Blenkinsopp, C.E. and Chaplin, J.R., 2008. The effect of relative crest submergence on wave breaking over submerged slopes. Coastal Engineering, 55: 967-974.

CERC-EW, 2008. Coastal engineering manual. EM-1110-2-1100.

Couriel, S., Horton, P. and Cox, D., 1998. Supplementary 2d physical modelling of breaking wave characteristics. Technicial Report, Water Research Laboratory, TR98-14.

de Vries, S., de Schipper, M.A., Hill, D.F. and Stive, M.J.F., 2010. Remote sensing of surf zone waves using stereo imaging. Coastal Engineering: 1 - 12.

Ebersole, B. and Hughes, S., 1986. Duck85 photopole experiment. US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Misc. Paper CERC-87-8: 1 - 163.

Flick, R.E., Guza, R.T. and Inman, D.L., 1981. Elevation and velocity measurements of laboratory shoaling waves. Journal of Geophysical Research, 86: 4149 - 4160.

Gal, Y., Browne, M. and Lane, C., 2011. Automatic estimation of nearshore wave height from video timestacks. 2011 International Conference on Digital Image Computing: 364 - 369.

Goda, Y., 2010. Reanalysis of regular and random breaking wave statistics. Coastal Engineering Journal, 52(1): 71 - 106.

Grilli, S.T., Svendsen, I.A. and Subramanya, R., 1997. Breaking criterion and characteristics for solitary waves on slopes. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, 123(3): 102 -112.

Johnson, C.M., 2009. The effect of artificial reef configerations on wave breaking intensity relating to recreational surfing conditions. MSc Thesis, Civil Engineering, University of Stellenbosch: 1 - 137.

Kamphuis, J.W., 1991. Incipient wave breaking. Coastal Engineering, 15: 185 - 203.

Khayyer, A., Gotoh, H. and Shao, S.D., 2008. Corrected incompressible sph method for accurate water-surface tracking in breaking waves. Coastal Engineering, 55: 236-250.

Le Mehaute, B., 1976. An introduction of hydrodynamics and water waves. Springer-Verlag.

Lin, P., Philip, L. and Liu, F., 1998. A numerical study of breaking waves in the surf zone. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 259(239 - 264).

Lippmann, T.C. and Holman, R.A., 1991. Phase speed and angle of breaking waves measured with video techniques. ASCE Coastal Sediments: 542-556.

Longuet - Higgins, M.S., 1982. Parametric solutions for breaking waves. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 121: 403 - 424.

Longuet - Higgins, M.S. and Stewart, R.W., 1963. A note on wave set-up. Journal of Marine Research, 21(1): 4-10.

Mase, H. and Iwagaki, M., 1982. Wave height distributions and wave groupingh in surf zone. Coastal Engineering: 58-76.

McCowan, J., 1894. On the highest waves of a permanent type. Philosophical Magazine, Edinburgh, 38(5): 351 - 358.

Mead, S.T. and Black, K., 2001. Predicting the breaking intensity of surfing waves. Special Issue of the Journal of Coastal Research on Surfing.: 103 -130.

Ostendorf, D.W. and Madsen, O.S., 1979. An analysis of longshore current and associated sediment transport in the surf zone. Report No. 241, Department of Civil Engineering, MIT: 169.

Rasband, W.S., 1997 - 2012. Imagej. U.S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Rattanapitikon, W. and Shibayama, T., 2000. Verification and modification of breaker height formulas. Coastal Engineering Journal, 42(4): 389 - 406.

Robertson, B., 2013. Remote measurement and analysis of shallow water breaking wave characteristics, University of Guelph.

Robertson, B., Hall, K., Nistor, I. and Zytner, R., 2013a. Breaking waves: Review of characteristic relationships. Coastal Engineering Journal, 1(55): 40.

Robertson, B., Hall, K., Nistor, I., Zytner, R. and Storlazzi, C., 2013b. Remote sensing of irregular breaking wave parameters in field conditions. Journal of Coastal Research: 29.

Rosati, J.D., Gingerich, K.J. and Kraus, N.C., 1990. Superduck surf zone sand transport experiment. US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CERC - 90-10: 1-75.

Seyama, A. and Kimura, A., 1988. The measured properties of irregular wave breaking and wave height change after breaking on a slope. Proceedings 21th Conference of Coastal Engineering, ACSE: 419 - 432.

Shand, T.D., Bailey, D.G. and Shand, R.D., 2012. Automated detection of breaking wave height using an optical technique. Journal of Coastal Research.

Smith, E.R. and Kraus, N.C., 1991. Laboratory study of wave breaking over bars and artificial reefs. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, 117(4): 307 - 325.

Weggel, R., 1972. Maximum breaker height for design. Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering: 419 - 432.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.9753/icce.v34.waves.41