Ray-Yeng Yang, Li-An Kuo, Hwung-Hweng Hwung


The objective of this study is to find the suitable measure for mitigating the existing erosion problem of the Wai-San-Ding barrier island, the largest remaining barrier island off the Taiwan coast. After collecting enough hydrodynamic and morphodynamic data from the long-term field investigation, the erosion mechanisms of the barrier island were analyzed in detail. Based on the analysis of the erosion mechanisms, consideration of some measure options were proposed and firstly simulated by numerical model to find the two better solutions. Then, the two better solutions were further investigated and validated by physical model. The results showed that soft groins in the downstream and submerged artificial berms in the midstream are the effectively integrated measure to mitigate the continuing erosion problem of the Wai-San-Ding barrier island. Meanwhile, the plant evolution method and oyster cultch were also proposed to apply in mitigation of wind sand transport and stabilization of sand dune.


Wai-San-Ding; barrier island; erosion; soft countermeasure; sand dune

Full Text:



Bridges, M., and R.G. Dean (1996). “Erosional Hot spots: characteristics and Causes,” Proc.10th National Conference on Beach Preservation Technology, Florida Shore and Beach Preservation Assoc.

Chen, S. N., L. P. Sanford, E. W. Koch, F. Shi, and E. W. North. (2007). “A nearshore model to investigate the effects of seagrass bed geometry on wave attenuation and suspended sediment transport,” Estuaries and Coasts, Vol.20(2), pp.296-310.

Davis, R.A. and Hayes, M.O. (1984). “What is a wave-dominated coast ? ,” Marine Geology, Vol. 60, pp. 313-329.

Dean, R. G. (1986). “Coastal Armoring:Effects, Principles and Mitigation,” Proc. 20th Intl. Conf. Coastal Eng., ASCE, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 1943-1857.

Delft Hydraulics (1987). “Manual on artificial beach nourishment,” Delft, The Netherlands.

Dette, H. H. and Raudkivi, A. J. (1994). “Beach nourishment and dune protection,” 24th ICCE, Kobe, Japan, pp. 1007-1022.

Fonseca, M. S. and Cahalan J. A. (1992). “A preliminary evaluation of wave attenuation by four species of seagrass,” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol.35, pp.565-576.

Foret, J. (2002). “Role of artificial oyster reef development in the restoration of Coastal Louisiana,” 6th International Conference on Shellfish Restoration, Charleston, SC, USA, NOAA/Sea Grant.

Fowler, J.D. Toups, Ch. Mesa, and P. Gilbert (1995). “Geotextile contained contaminated dredged material, Marina del Ray, Los Angeles and Port of Oakland, California,” Proc. 14th World Dredging Congress (WODA), Amsterdam.

Hamgauchi, T., Uda, T., Inoue,C. and Igarashi, A. (1991). “Field experiment on wave-dissipating effect of artificial reefs on the Niigata Coast,” Coastal Engineering in Japan, Japan Society for Civil Engineers. 34, pp.50-65.

Hamm, L. et al. (1998). “Beach fills in Europe;projects, practices and objectives,” Book of Abstracts, 26th ICCE, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Hands, E.B. (1991). “Unprecedented Migration of a Submerged Mound off the Alabama Coast,” Proc. 12th Ann. Conf. Western Dredging Assoc., 1-25.

Hsu, J. R. C. and Evans, C. (1989). “Parabolic Bay Shapes and Applications,” Proc. Instn. Civil Engers., Part 2. London: Thomas Telford, Vol. 87, pp. 557-570.

Hwung, Hwung-Hweng, Huang, Hsiang-Yu, Wu, Ying-Chih, Liou,Jing-Ying and Liu Li-Lian (2008). “Mineral Accretion Technique during Biological Attachment In-Situ,” 30th Ocean Engineering Conference in Taiwan National Chiao Tung University, pp.553-558. (in Chinese).

Hwung, Hwung-Hweng, Yang, Ray-Yeng and Igor V. Shugan (2008). “Sea wave adaptation by an elastic plate,” Proc. 18th International Offshore (Ocean) and Polor Engineering Conference, Vancouver, Canada, pp.296-302.

Katharine A. Smith et al. (2009). “Modeling the Effects of Oyster Reefs and Breakwaters on Seagrass Growth,” Estuaries and Coasts, Vol.32, pp.748-757.

Kobayashi, N., Raichle, A. W., and Asano, T. (1993). “Wave attenuation by vegetation,” J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, Ocean Eng., Vol.119(1), pp.30-48.

Krystian W. Pilarczyk (2000).“ Geosynthetics and Geosystems in Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering,”A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Leo C. van Rijn (1998). “Principles of Coastal Morphology,” AQUA PUBLICATIONS.

Leonard, L.A. et al. (1990). “A comparison of beach replenishment on the U.S. Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf coasts,” Journal of Coastal Research, SI6, pp.127-140.

Li C. W. and Yan K. (2007). “Numerical Investigation of Wave-Current-Vegetation Interaction,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol.133, No.7, pp.794-803.

Mφller, J. T. (1990). “Artificial beach nourishment on the Danish North Sea coast,” Journal of Coastal Research, SI6, pp. 1-10.

O’Beirn, F., Luckenbach, M., Nestlerode, J., and Coates, G. (2000). “Toward design criteria in constructed oyster reefs: Oyster recruitment as a function of substrate type and tidal height,” Journal of Shellfish Research, 19, 1, pp. 387-395.

Otay, E. N. (1994). “Long-Term Evolution of Nearshore Disposal Berms,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering, University of Florida.

Rijkswaterstaat (1996). “Evaluation of sand nourishment projects along the Dutch coast 1975-1994(in Dutch),” Report RIKZ 96.028, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Rybicki, N. B., H. L. Jenter, V. Carter, R. A. Baltzer, and M. Turtora (1997). “Observations of tidal flux between a submersed aquatic plant stand and the adjacent channel in the Potomac River near Washington, D. C.,” Limnology and Oceanography Vol.42(2), pp.307-317.

Work, P. A. and Dean R. G. (1991). “Effect of varying sediment size on equilibrium beach profile,” Coastal sediments, Seattle, USA.