Alessandro Antonini, Maria Gabriella Gaeta, Alberto Lamberti


No other environmental variable of ecological importance to estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems around the world has changed so drastically, in such a short period of time, as dissolved oxygen. Coastal surveys in United States and Europe found that a staggering 78 % of the assessed continental U.S. coastal area and approximately 65 % of Europe’s Atlantic coast exhibit symptoms of eutrophication. The 65 % of the coasts counted by Diaz does not take into account inland seas like the Adriatic or Baltic Seas but also for these, eutrophication and consequently anoxia are common problems. In the present study a simple and economic device is proposed to enhance vertical mixing processes and to induce aeration of deep water by pumping of oxygen-rich surface water downwards to a desired depth around the halocline. The hydrodynamic parameters of the device are estimated through free oscillation tests. Preliminary values of the downward water flux velocity inside the device and the movements of the floater under the action of 4 regular waves, characterizing of the wave climate in the Nord Adriatic Sea, are estimated.


anoxia; oxygenation; physical modeling; wave energy; stratification

Full Text:



Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., Russo, F. 1996. The Adriatic Sea General Circulation. Part I: Air–Sea Interactions and Water Mass Structure, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27, pp. 1492-1514.http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<1492:TASGCP>2.0.CO;2

Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., Russo, F. 1996. The Adriatic Sea General Circulation. Part II: Baroclinic Circulation Structure, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27, 1515-1532.http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<1515:TASGCP>2.0.CO;2

Boni, L., Pompei, M., Reti, M., 1986. Maree colorate e fioriture algali lungo le coste dell'EmiliaRomagna dal 1982 al 1985 con particolare riguardo alla comparsa di Protogonyaulax tamarensis. Nova Thalassia,8, pp. 237-245.

Boni, L., Ceredi, A., Guerrini, F., Milandri, A., Pistocchi, R., Poletti, R., Pompei, M., 2000. Toxic Protoceratium reticulatum (Peridiniales, Dinophyta) in the north-western Adriatic Sea (Italy). In: Hallegrae, G.M., Blackburn, S.I., Bolch, C.J., Lewis, R.J. (Eds.), Harmful Algal Blooms, Proceedings of the IX International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms. UNESCO, Paris,137-140.

Cattani, O., Vitali, G., 1995. Effetti degli adattamenti biochimici alla carenza di ossigeno degli organismi marini sulle comunita bentoniche di aree eutrofizzate. Il caso dell'Adriatico nordoccidentale. In: Regione Emilia Romagna (Ed.), Proceedings of the Conference on ''Evoluzione dello stato trofico in Adriatico: analisi degli interventi attuati e future linee di intervento''. Regione Emilia Romagna, Bologna, pp. 101-112

Czolczynski, K. 2004. On the existence of a stable periodic solution of an impacting oscillator with damping. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 19, pp. 1291 – 1311.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-0779(03)00336-9

Degobbis, D. 1989. Increased eutrophication of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Second Act. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 20, pp. 452-457.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X(89)90066-0

Degobbis, D., Fonda-Umani, S., Franco, P., Malej, A., Precali, R., Smodlaka, N., 1995. Changes in the Northern Adriatic ecosystem and appearance of hypertrophic gelatinous aggregates. The Science of the Total Environment 165, pp. 43-58.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(95)04542-9

Diaz, R., Solow, A,. 1999. Ecological and economic consequences of hypoxia. Topic2 Report for the integrated assessment on hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico, US department of commerce, national oceanic and atmospheric administration.

Diaz, R. 2001. Overview of Hypoxia around the World. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, pp.275-281. European Environmental Agency, 1994. European rivers and lakes. Environmental Monographs 1, Copenhagen.

Fofono, N. P., and R. C. Millard, 1983. Algorithms for computations of fundamental properties of seawater. Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science No. 44,53pp

Giordani, P., Hammond, D.E., Berelson, W.M., Montanari, G., Poletti, R., Milandri, A., Frignani, M., Langone, L., Ravaioli, M., Rovatti, G., Rabbi, E., 1992. Benthic fluxes and nutrient budget for sediments in the Northern Adriatic Sea: burial and recycling efficiencies. In: Vollenweider, R.A., Marchetti, R., Viviani, R. (Eds.), Marine Coastal Eutrophication. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 25-275.

Marchetti, R., Provini, A., Crosa, G., 1989. Nutrient load carried by the River Po into the Adriatic Sea, 1968e87. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 20, pp. 168-172.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X(89)90487-6

Margheritini, L, Claeson, L, 2011. An innovative way of utilizing wave energy to counteract eutrophication and hypoxia. Proceedings of the 9th European Wave and Tidal Conference, Southampton, EWTEC 2011.

Sangiorgi, F., Donders, T., 2003. Reconstructing 150 years of eutrophication in the north-western Adriatic Sea (Italy) using dinoflagellate cysts, pollen and spores, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 60, pp. 69-79.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2003.12.001

Smayda, T., 1990. Novel and nuisance phytoplankton blooms in the sea: evidence for a global epidemic. In: Graneli, E., Sunstrøm, B.,Edler, L., Anderson, D.A. (Eds.), Toxic Marine Phytoplankton. Elsevier, New York, pp. 29-40.

Viviani, R., 1992. Eutrophication, marine biotoxins, human health. In: Vollenweider, R.A., Marchetti, R., Viviani, R. (Eds.), Marine Coastal Eutrophication. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 631-662.


Vollenweider, R.A., Rinaldi, A., Montanari, G., 1992. Eutrophication, structure and dynamics of a marine coastal system: results of a ten years monitoring along the Emilia-Romagna coast (Northwest Adriatic Sea). In: Vollenweider, R.A., Marchetti, R., Viviani, R. (Eds.), Marine Coastal Eutrophication. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 63-106.

Zavatarelli, M., Raicich, F., Bregant, D., Russo, A., Artegiani, A. 1998. Climatological biogeochemical characteristics of the Adriatic Sea. Journal of Marine Systems, 18, pp. 227-263.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(98)00014-1

DOI: https://doi.org/10.9753/icce.v33.management.56