Anestis Lioutas, Gregory M. Smith, Henk Jan Verhagen


The scope of this research is to find an empirical formula to describe the distribution of wave overtopping in the region behind the crest. A physical model was set up in which irregular waves were generated. In order to find a formula which adequately describes the test observations, the influence of several parameters has been analysed. The proper determination of the crest freeboard, which is a dominant factor, has been investigated. Finally, the test results have been used to assess and compare the existing relevant computational methods.


overtopping; rubble mound breakwater; physical modelling; spatial distribution; crest freeboard

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