Qingping Zou, Zhong Peng, Pengzhi Lin


Scour in front of coastal structures is a major threat to structural stability and safety of properties behind. In this study, a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Solver (RANS) is combined with a Volume of Fluid (VOF) (RANS-VOF) surface capturing scheme to investigate the wave interactions with a Seawall and its adjacent sea bed. The main objective is to investigate the effects of wave breaking and beach slope on toe scour in front of a vertical wall.


vertical wall; beach; standing wave; breaking wave; RANS

Full Text:



Bakhtyar, R., Ghaheri, A., Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, A. and Barry, D.A., 2009. Process-based model for nearshore hydrodynamics, sediment transport and morphological evolution in the surf and swash zones. Applied Ocean Research, 31(1): 44-56.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2009.05.002

Butt, T. and Russell, P., 2000. Hydrodynamics and cross-shore sediment transport in the swash-zone of natural beaches: A review. Journal of Coastal Research, 16(2): 255-268

Fredsøe, J. and Deigaard, R., 1992. MECHANICS OF COASTAL SEDIMENT TRANSPORT. Advanced Series on Ocean Engineering 3. World Scientific.

Fredsøe, J. and Sumer, B.M., 1997. Scour at the round head of a rubble-mound breakwater. Coastal Engineering, 29(3-4): 231-262.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3839(96)00025-7

Garcia, N., Lara, J.L., Losada, I.J., 2004. 2-D numerical analysis of near-field flow at low-crested permeable breakwaters. Coastal Eng. 51 (10), 991–1020.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2004.07.017

Gislason, K., Fredsøe, J. and Sumer, B.M., 2009. Flow under standing waves: Part 2. Scour and deposition in front of breakwaters. Coastal Engineering, 56(3): 363-370.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2008.11.002

HR Wallingford, 2006. Understanding the Lowering of Beaches in front of coastal defence structures, Phase 2: Medium scale 2D physical model tests of scour at sea walls. CBS0726/06.

Lara, J.L., Garcia, N., Losada, I.J., 2006. RANS modelling applied to random wave interaction with submerged permeable structures. Coastal Eng. 53 (5–6), 395–417.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2005.11.003

Larson, M., Kubota, S. and Erikson, L., 2001. A Model of Sediment Transport and Profile Evolution in the Swash Zone. In: Hanson, H. and M. Larson (Editors), Coastal Dynamics '01. ASCE, Lund, Sweden pp. 908-917.http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/40566(260)93

Liang, D. and Cheng, L., 2005. Numerical Model for Wave-Induced Scour below a Submarine Pipeline. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 131(5): 193-202.http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(2005)131:5(193)

Lin, P.Z. and Liu, P.L.F., 1998. A numerical study of breaking waves in the surf zone. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 359: 239-264.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002211209700846X

Madsen, O.S., 1991. Mechanics of Cohesionless Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters. In: Kraus, N.C. (Editor), Proceedings of Coastal Sediments 91'. ASCE, Seattle, Washington, pp. 15-27

Meyer-Peter, E. and Mueller, R., 1948. Formulas for bed load transport, Second Meeting of the International Association of Hydraulic Structures, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 39-64.

Pedrozo-Acu-a, A., Simmonds, D.J., Otta, A.K. and Chadwick, A.J., 2006. On the cross-shore profile change of gravel beaches. Coastal Engineering, 53(4): 335-347.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2005.10.019

Sumer, B.M., 2007. Mathematical modelling of scour: A review. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 45(6): 723-735.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221686.2007.9521811

Sumer, B.M. and Freds¢e, J., 2002. The Mechanics of Scour in the Marine Environment. Advanced Series on Ocean Engineering, Vol. 17. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.

Sutherland, J, C. Obhrai, R.J.S. Whitehouse and A.M.C. Pearce. (2006). Laboratory Tests of Scour at a Seawall. Proceedings, 3rd International Conference on Scour and Erosion

Troch P. and De Rouck J. 1999, An active wave generating-absorbing boundary condition for VOF type numerical model, Coastal Engineering, Vol 38(4), pp 223-247.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3839(99)00051-4

Tsai, C.-P., Chen, H.-B. and You, S.-S., 2009. Toe Scour of Seawall on a Steep Seabed by Breaking Waves. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 135(2): 61-68.http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(2009)135:2(61)

Zou, Q.-P., & Z. Peng, 2011. Evolution of wave shape over a low-crested structure, Coastal Engineering,Vol 58, Issue 6, Pages 478-488, (doi: 10.1016/j.coastaleng. 2011.01.00)

Zou, Q.-P., Chen, Y., Cluckie, I., Hewston, R., Pan, S., Peng, Z. and Reeve, D., 2012: "Ensemble prediction of coastal flood risk arising from overtopping and scour by linking meteorological, ocean, coastal and surf zone models", Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Revised.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9753/icce.v33.sediment.122