Renata Archetti, Maria Gabriella Gaeta


The main parameter for the assessment of coastal vulnerability and sediment transport is the wave run-up on the beach, defining the limit of maximum flooding, but also hydrodynamic properties in the Swash Zone (SZ) are trivial for the comprehension of hydro-morphodynamic processes. Several studies have been carried out on the SZ but few literature is still available on the run-up and on SZ flows on beaches protected by Low Crested Structures (LCSs), where flow motion is driven by a combination of low frequency infra-gravity waves and incident waves. In presence of breakwaters, swash incident waves are transmitted through the structure. In the transmission area behind the structures, wave energy is shifted to higher frequencies with respect to the incident wave spectrum and in general its mean period considerably decreases with respect to the incident one. Collecting in situ run-up measurements during storms is essential to understand the SZ processes and properly calibrate their both empirical and numerical models but measuring extreme run-up is difficult, due to the severe sea conditions and due to unexpected nature of storms. The present paper present a numerical and experimental analysis of the wave run-up and of the flow properties on a beach: the study shows the different behavior of unprotected and protected beach, subjected to the same wave conditions. In particular the paper shows that submerged breakwaters reduce in general the run-up height, on the basis of the calibrated 2DV numerical simulations, under extreme wave conditions (TR >50 years), the effect of submerged breakwaters seems to be negligible on the run-up height. Moreover a preliminary empirical equation for run-up with protected beach is proposed


run up; video monitoring; numerical modelling; low crested structures; flooding hazard

Full Text:



Archetti, R., and A. Lamberti. 2006. Study of hydrodynamic induced by low crested structures through image processing. Proc. of the 30th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ASCE, 5021 – 5033.

Archetti R. 2009. Study of the evolution of a beach protected by low crested structures using video monitoring. Journal of Coastal Research . Vol 25(4). Pp 884 – 899. Issn 1551-5036.

Archetti, R. and Romagnoli, C. 2011, Analysis of the effects of different storm events on shoreline dynamics of an artificially embayed beach. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. doi: 10.1002/esp.2162.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/esp.2162

Aarninkhof, S.G.J And Roelvink, J.A., 1999, Argus–based monitoring of intertial beach morphodimanics. Proc. Coastal sediment 1999: 2429-2444.

Bellotti G., Archetti, R.,e Bocchini, M. 2003. Experimental validation and characterization of mean swash zone boundary conditions J. Geophys. Res.Vol.108,No.C8,3250 – 3266.http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002JC001510

Bezzi E. 2011. Effetti delle opere di protezione costiera:la trasmissione e l'evoluzione del litorale nei casi studio di Lido di Dante e Igea Marina. Master thesis Corso di laurea magistrale in Ingegneria dei sistemi edilizi e urbani. University of Bologna.

Clementi E., M. G. Gaeta, and A. Lamberti. 2007. Filtration through low crested structures in 2D experimental and numerical investigations, Proc. of Coastal Structures Conference, 1, 927-938.AA.VV. Coastal Engineering Vol. 52, Issues 10-11, 815-1126 Special Issue on Low Crested Structures and the Environment.

d'Angremond K., J.W. van der Meer, R.J. De Jong. 1996. Wave transmission at low crested structures. Proc. 25th Int. Conf. on Coastal Engineering, ASCE (1996), pp. 3305–3318.

Gaeta, M. G., A. Lamberti, and P. L.-F. Liu. 2009. A two-phase numerical model for incompressible fluids: air influence in wave propagation and applications, Proc. of the 31st International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ASCE, 144-156.

Holman RA, Stanley J. 2007. The history, capabilities and future of Argus. Coastal Engineering 54(6–7): 477–491.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2007.01.003

Holman, R.A., A.H.Jr. Sallenger, T.C. Lippmann, and J. Haines. 1993. The application of video image processing to the study of nearshore processes, Oceanography, 6 (3), 78-85.http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.1993.02

Hunt, I.A. 1959. Design of Seawalls and Breakwaters, Journal of the Waterways and Harbors Division, Proc. of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 85 (WW3), 123-152.

Hur, D.-S., W.-D. Lee, and W.-C. Cho. 2012. Characteristics of wave run-up height on a sandy beach behind dual-submerged breakwaters, Ocean Engineering, 45, 38-55.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2012.01.030

Johnson, B.L. and C.A. Johnston. 1995. Relationship of Lithology and Geomorphology to Erosion of the western Lake Superior Coast, J. of Great Lakes Research, 21(1), 3-16.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0380-1330(95)71016-4

Kroon, A., S.G.J. Aarninkhof, R. Archetti, C. Armaroli, M. Gonzalez, S. Medri, A. Osorio, T. Aagaard, M. A. Davidson, R. A. Holman, and R. Spanhoff. 2007. Application of remote sensing video systems for coastline management problems, Coastal Engineering, 54 (6), 493-505.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2007.01.004

Lamberti, A., R. Archetti, M. Kramer, D. Paphitis, C. Mosso and M. Di Risio. 2005. European experience of low crested structures for coastal management, Coastal Engineering, 52, 841-866.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2005.09.010

Lamberti A., M. Masina, and R. Archetti. 2012. Investigating dependence in the main sea state parameters with copula approach. Geophysical Research Abstracts. Vol. 14, EGU2012-1160, 2012. EGU General Assembly 2012.

Lara, J. L., N. Garcia, and I. J. Losada. 2006. RANS modelling applied to random wave interaction with submerged permeable structures, Coastal Engineering, 53, 395-417.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2005.11.003

Launder, B. E., A. Morse, W. Rodi, and D. B. Spalding. 1972. Prediction of free shear flows: a comparison of the performance of six turbulence models, Free Shear Flow, 361-426.

Lin, P., and P. L.-F. Liu. 1998. A numerical study of breaking waves in the surf zone, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 359, 239-264.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002211209700846X

Mase, H. 1989. Random Wave Run-up Height on Gentle Slopes, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 115 (5), 649-661.http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(1989)115:5(649)

Masina M, 2011. Risposta morfologica della spiaggia compresa tra Lido di Dante e Lido di Classe ad eventi di mareggiata. PhD Thesis. Ferrara University.

Mickelson, D.M., T. B. Edil, and D. E. Guy. 2004. Erosion of coastal bluff in the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1693, 107-123.

Nielsen, P., and D. J. Hanslow. 1991. Wave Run-up Distributions on Natural Beaches, Journal of Coastal Research, 7 (4), 1139-1152.

Platt, R. H. 1994. Evolution of coastal hazards policies in the United-States, Coastal Management, 22(3), 268-284.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08920759409362236

Sancho, F., Mendes, P.A., Carmo, J.A., Neves, M.G., Tomasicchio, G.R., Archetti, R., Damiani, L., Mossa, M., Rinaldi, A., Gironella, X., S-Arcilla, A. 2001. Wave hydrodynamics over a barred beach. Proc. of the IV Int. Symposium on Ocean Wave Measurement and Analysis. Vol.2, 2001, pp. 1170-1179.

Stockdon, H. F., R. A. Holman, P. A. Howd, and A. H. Sallenger Jr. 2006. Empirical parameterization of setup, swash, and run-up, Coastal Engineering, 53, 573-588.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2005.12.005

Soldini, L., M. Antuono, and M. Brocchini. 2012. Numerical modeling of the influence of the beach profile on the wave run-up, J. of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, In press.

Torres-Freyermuth, A., I. J. Losada, and J. L. Lara. 2006. Modeling of surf zone processes on a natural beach using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, C09014, doi:10.1029/2006JC004050.http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006JC004050

Van der Meer J.W and I.F.R. Daemen. 1994. Stability and wave transmission at low crested rubblemound structures. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 1 (1994), pp. 1–19.http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(1994)120:1(1)

Van der Meer 2005 J.W., R. Briganti, B. Zanuttigh, W. Baoxing. 2005. Wave transmission at low crested structures. Coastal Engineering, 52 (10) (2005), pp. 915–929.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.9753/icce.v33.currents.20