Giuseppe Roberto Tomasicchio, Elvira Armenio, Felice D'Alessandro, Nuno Fonseca, Spyros A. Mavrakos, Valery Penchev, Holger Schuttrumpf, Spyridon Voutsinas, Jens Kirkegaard, Palle M. Jensen


The knowledge of the behavior of floating offshore wind turbines (W/T) under wave and/or wind action remains one of the most difficult challenges in offshore engineering which is mostly due to the highly non-linear response of the structure. The present study describes the design process of a 3D physical experiment to investigate the behavior of the most promising structure technology of floating W/T: spar buoy (SB) and tension leg platform (TLP) under different meteo conditions. In order to properly design the two W/T models, the following topics have been analyzed: mooring lines, mass distribution, appropriate scaling factor and data relative to the geometrical characteristics, wave basin dimensions and wind and waves conditions. In addition, the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method (SPH) (Monaghan 1994) has been considered to simulate the 3D behavior of a floating offshore W/T. In particular, the SPH, calibrated and verified on the basis of the experimental observations, may represent a reliable tool for preliminary test of changes in the floater geometry.


floating wind turbines; tension leg platform; spar buoy; SPH

Full Text:



Crespo, A.J.C., Dominguez, J.M., Barreiro, A., Gómez-Gesteira, M., Rogers, B.D., 2011. GPUs, a new tool of acceleration in CFD: Efficiency and reliability on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics methods. PLoS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020685.

Dalrymple, R.A., Rogers, B.D. 2006. Numerical modeling of water waves with the SPH method. Journal of Coastal Engineering, 53, 141 – 147.

Gomez-Gesteira, M., Dalrymple, R.A., 2004. Using a 3D SPH method for wave impact on a tall structure. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 130 (2), 63– 69.

Gómez-Gesteira, M., Rogers, B.D., Crespo, A.J.C., Dalrymple, R.A., Narayanaswamy, M., Dominguez, J.M., 2012a. SPHysics - development of a free-surface fluid solver- Part 1: Theory and Formulations. Computers & Geosciences, doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2012.02.029.

Gómez-Gesteira, M., Crespo, A.J.C., Rogers, B.D., Dalrymple, R.A., Dominguez, J.M., Barreiro, A. 2012b. SPHysics - development of a free-surface fluid solver- Part 2: Efficiency and test cases. Computers & Geosciences, doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2012.02.028.

Hérault, A., Bilotta, G., Dalrymple, R.A. 2010. SPH on GPU with CUDA. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 48 (Extra Issue), 74-79.

Jonkman, J., Matha, D. 2009. A quantitative comparison of the responses of three floating platform. Proceedings of European Offshore Wind 2009 Conference and Exhibition, NREL/CP-500-46726.

Jonkman, J., Butterfield, S., Musial, W., Scott G. 2009. Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development. Technical Report NREL/TP-500-38060.

Jonkman, J. 2010. Definition of the floating system for phase IV of OC3, Technical Report NREL/TP-500-47535.

Lomonaco, P., Guanche, R., Vidal, C., Losada, I.J., Migoya, L. (2010). Measuring and modelling the behaviour of floating slender bodies under wind and wave action. Proceedings of the International Conference Coastlab 10, Barcelona, paper n. 54.


Manenti, S., Panizzo A., Ruol P., Martinelli, L. 2008. SPH simulation of a floating body forced by regular waves. Proceedings of 3rd SPHERIC Workshop, pp. 38-41.

Mavrakos, S.A. 1992. STATMOOR User's manual, Laboratory for Floating Stuctures and Mooring Systems, School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.

Matha, D. 2009. Model Development and Loads Analysis of an Offshore Wind Turbine on a Tension Leg Platform, with a Comparison to Other Floating Turbine Concepts. Technical Report NREL/SR-500-45891.

Monaghan J.J., 1994. Simulating free surface flows with SPH. Journal of Computational Physics. Vol. 110, 399-406.

Monaghan, J.J., 2003. New developments in smoothed particle hydrodynamics, Meshfree Methods for Partial Differential Equations, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg Germany, pp. 281-290.

Rudman, M. and Cleary, P.W. 2009. Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to study wave impact on floating off-shore platforms: the effect of mooring system. Proceedings of Seventh International Conferbence on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industries CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.

Tomasicchio, G.R., D'Alessandro, F., Barbaro, G. 2011. Composite modelling for large scale experiments on wave-dune interactions. Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol.49, No.S1, pp.15-19.