Ilse van den Bosch, Erik Ten Oever, Pieter Bakker, Markus Muttray


The hydraulic stability of single layer, interlocking armour units on low crested and submerged breakwaters was investigated in 2D hydraulic model tests. Displacements of armour units and rocking were monitored and have been applied as indicators for the armour layer stability on the crest, front and rear slope. The effect of freeboard, packing density and wave steepness on the armour layer stability have been investigated. The stability of interlocking concrete armour units on low crested and submerged structures is qualitatively different from rock armour. About 40% to 50% larger armour units are required on the seaward slope and crest of low crested structures (as compared to conventional high crested breakwaters). About 35% larger armour units are required on the rear slope. Larger armour units are not required on submerged breakwaters if the water depth on the crest exceeds 50% of design wave height.


Single layer armour; interlocking armour; low crested breakwater; crest armour; armour stability

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