Panayotis Prinos, Maria Tsakiri, Dimitris Souliotis


Wave overtopping and the propagation of the waves on the crest and the landward slope of a coastal dike is investigated numerically. Wave overtopping conditions are simulated using the concept of the Wave Overtopping Simulator (WOS). Two numerical models of the WOS are constructed using the FLUENT 6.0.12 (FLUENT Inc. 2001) and the FLOW 3D 9.4 (FLOW 3D 2010) CFD codes. The former simulates the WOS without accounting for air entrainment while the latter accounts for air entrainment. The unsteady RANS equations, the RNG k-ε turbulence model and the VOF method are solved numerically, for "tracking" the free surface and the head of the "current" from the dike crest to the landward dike slope. The computed results from the two models are compared with each other and also against field measurements and proposed empirical relationships (Van der Meer et al. 2010).


wave overtopping simulator; coastal dike; dike crest; landward slope; air entrainment

Full Text:



Akkerman, G.J., Bernadini, P., Van der Meer, J.W., and Van Hoven, A. 2007a. Field tests on sea defences subject to wave overtopping, Proceedings of Coastal structures, ASCE, Venice, Italy, 657-668.

Akkerman, G.J., Van Gerven, K.A.J., Schaap, H.A. and Van der Meer, J.W. 2007b. Wave overtopping erosion tests at Groningen sea dyke, ComCoast, Workpackage 3: Development of Alternative Overtopping-Resistant Sea Defences, phase 3. (www.comcoast.org).

ANSYS. Fluent Inc. 2001. Fluent 6.0 Documentation, Lebanon, USA.

FLOW 3D. 2010. User Manual Version 9.4, Flow Science, Inc., Santa Fe.

Hirt C.W. 2003. Modeling turbulent entrainment of air at a free surface, Technical note 61, Flow Science, Inc. (FSi-03-TN61).

Hirt C.W., Nichols B.D. 1981. Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics, 39, 201-225.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9991(81)90145-5

Steendam, G., De Vries, W., Van der Meer, J.W., Van Hoven, A, De Raat, G. And Frissel, J.Y. 2008. Influence of management and maintenance on erosive impact of wave overtopping on grass covered slopes of dikes, Proceedings of Flood Risk Management: Research and Practice, Oxford, UK, 95 pp. (full paper available in CD-ROM).

Van der Meer, J.W., Snijders, W. and Regegling, E. 2006. The wave overtopping simulator, Proceedings of ICCE 2006, ASCE, San Diego, USA, 4654-4666.

Van der Meer, J.W. 2007. Design, contruction, calibration and use of the wave overtopping simulator. ComCoast, Workpackage 3: Decelopment of Alternstive Overtopping-Resistant Sea Defences, phase 3. (www.comcoast.org.)

Van der Meer, J.W., Bernadini, P., Akkerman, G.J. and Hoffmans, G.J.C.M. 2007. The wave overtopping simulator in action, Proceedings of Coastal Structures, ASCE, Venice, Italy, 645-656.


Van der Meer, J.W., Steendam, G., de Raat and Bernadini, P. 2008. Further developments on the wave overtopping simulator, Proceeding of ICCE 2008, ASCE, Hamburg, Germany, 2957-2969.

Van der Meer, J.W., Hardeman, B., Steendam, G., Schuttrumpf, H. And Verheij, H. 2010. Flow depths and velocities at crest and inner slope of a dike, in theory and with the wave overtopping simulator, Proceedings of ICCE 2010, Shanghai, China.

Yakhot, V., Orszag, S.A., Thangam, S., Gatski, T.B. and Speziale, C.G. 1992. Development of turbulence models for shear flows by a double expansion technique, Physics of Fluids A, 4, 1510-1520.http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.858424

DOI: https://doi.org/10.9753/icce.v33.waves.49