Kyung-Duck Suh, Jin-Sung Kang


To develop a stability formula for Tetrapods armoring rubble mound breakwaters, sixty hydraulic model tests have been conducted for various wave conditions and slope angles of breakwaters. The test results are used, along with the data of previous researchers, to develop a new stability formula. The developed formula is proven to be applicable to breakwaters with various slope angles with reasonable accuracy. It is also shown to be applicable to low-crested breakwaters and different packing densities, if the corresponding terms are incorporated in the formula. The uncertainty of the proposed formula is also given.


armor units; breakwaters; hydraulic models; model tests; stability; Tetrapods

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