Guido Wolters, Marcel R.A. Van Gent


Rubble mound coastal structures typically contain granular filters in one or more layers. These filters are normally geometrically tight (to prevent material washout), often difficult to realize in the field, and expensive. An alternative is a geometrically open filter (i.e. a large ratio of the size of toplayer material and underlayer material), designed in such a way that it fulfills its filter functions with only minimal base material loss or settlement. Potential applications of open filters include bed protections and toe & slope configurations of coastal structures. Proper guidelines on the design of open filters under wave and current loading could lead to significant cost and material savings, and to a more practical application of filters in the field. The physical model tests conducted in this study focus on granular open filters on a horizontal sand bed under wave and combined wave & current loading.


rubble-mound breakwater; open filter; transport filter; waves; currents; physical model tests

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