Takaaki Uda, Masumi Serizawa, Shiho Miyahara


In a slender water body with a large aspect ratio, the angle between the direction normal to the shoreline and the wave direction exceeds 45°, resulting in the emergence of cuspate forelands and the subdivision of a lake, because wind fetch along the principal axis becomes long. In this study, the BG model (a three-dimensional model for predicting beach changes based on Bagnold’s concept) was applied to this problem. The 3-D subdivision process of a long slender water body was predicted.


lakeshore; emergence; shoreline protrusion; BG model; 3-D beach changes; instability; self organization

Full Text:



Ashton, A., A. B. Murray, and O. Arnault. 2001. Formation of coastline features by large-scale instabilities induced by high angle waves, Nature, Vol. 414, 296-300.


Ashton, A., and A. B. Murray. 2006. High-angle wave instability and emergent shoreline shapes: 1. Modeling of sand waves, flying spits, and capes: J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 111, F04011, doi: 1. 1029/2005JF000422.

Ashton, A., A. B. Murray, R. Littlewood, D. A. Lewis, and P. Hong. 2009. Fetch limited selforganization of elongate water bodies, Geology, Vol. 37, 187-190.

Falqués, A, N. van den Berg, and D. Calvete. 2008. The role of cross-shore profile dynamics on shoreline instability due to high-angle waves, Proc. 31st ICCE, 1826-1838.

Goda, Y. 2003. Revisiting Wilson's formulas for simplified wind-wave prediction, J. Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 129, No. 2, 93-95.

Horikawa, K. ed. 1988. Nearshore Dynamics and Coastal Processes, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 522 pp.

Komar, P. D., and D. L. Inman. 1970. Longshore sand transport on beaches, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 5914-5927.

Komar, P. D. 1998. Beach Processes and Sedimentation, Prentice Hall International, London, 544 pp.

Serizawa, M., T. Uda, T. San-nami, and K. Furuike. 2003. Prediction of depth changes on x-y meshes by expanding contour-line change model, Ann. J. Coastal Eng. JSCE, Vol. 50, 476-480. (in Japanese)

Serizawa, M., T. Uda, T. San-nami, and K. Furuike. 2006. Three-dimensional model for predicting beach changes based on Bagnold's concept, Proc. 30th ICCE, 3155-3167.

Serizawa, M., and T. Uda. 2011. Prediction of formation of sand spit on coast with sudden change using improved BG model, Coastal Sediments '11, 1907-1919.

Serizawa, M., T. Uda, and S. Miyahara. 2012. Prediction of development of sand spits and cuspate forelands with rhythmic shapes caused by shoreline instability using BG model, Proc. 33rd ICCE. (in press)

Wilson, B. W. 1965. Numerical prediction of ocean waves in the North Atlantic for December, 1959, Deut. Hydrogr. Zeit, Jahrgang 18, Heft 3, 114-130.

Zenkovich, V. P. 1967. Processes of Coastal Development, Interscience Publishers, New York, 751 pp.