John B. Herbich, Abd-Elfattah Elfiky, Abd-Elmohsen Elmongy, Ali Elbahrawy, Gamal Elsaeed


The northern coastline of the Egyptian Nile Delta extends some 280 km from a point 30 km west of the City of Alexandria to 30 km east of the City of Portsaid. The coastline is considered to be in a state of continuous change under the action of sea waves and currents. Over the years the River Nile and its two main branches, Damietta and Rosetta, supplied large volumes of sediment from the mouth of these branches to the sea. This large volume of sediment exceeded the loss of sediment caused by wave and current action; thereby providing natural beach protection and excess sediment to the Nile Delta. Construction of the Aswan Nile Dam significantly reduced the volume of sediment deposited along the Nile Delta shoreline causing severe erosion. The erosion started after construction of the first Aswan dam, the development of other dams, and the increasing diversion of the river water for irrigation purposes. After closing the Aswan High Dam in 1966, erosion along the Delta coastline accelerated considerably, resulting in loss of several beaches and blockage of estuaries and navigation channels because of accreting sediment and flooding of coastal villages. The erosion had a severe effect on the nearby agricultural areas because of salt water intrusion affecting these areas.


Ras-Elbar, Egypt; shore protection

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