O.T. Magoon, J.R. Weggel, W.F. Baird, B.L. Edge, R.W. Whalin, D.D. Davidson, E. Mansard


In 1978, construction of what is now termed the "West Breakwater" at the Port of Sines, Portugal, was nearing completion when it suffered severe damage from a large storm having significant wave heights estimated at nine meters. In February 1979, a subsequent storm with significant waves near the design height of eleven meters virtually destroyed the breakwater. The breakwater, armored with 40 ton dolosse, was approximately 1.7 km long and extended generally southward from the mainland to provide the primary wave protection for the Port of Sines as shown in Figure 1. Sines is about 120 km south of Lisbon. Water depths of 50 meters exist close to shore at this site making it a viable site for a deep water port. The site is exposed to waves approaching generally from the west to northwest. The spring-tide range is about 3.6 meters. Cargo entering the port includes oil and coal (Dias & Toppler 1993). Petrochemicals and refined petroleum products are exported. Tankers offload their oil at berths 2 and 3 located immediately leeward of the west breakwater shown in Figure 2. With a water depth of 28 meters, berth 2 accommodates tankers up to 350,000 dwt. Berth 1 in the original design could have accommodated tankers up to 500,000 dwt, however, the severe storm damage to the breakwater and a reassessment of port development vis-a-vis changes in the world's tanker fleet resulted in abandoning berth 1. In addition to providing berths itself, the west breakwater shelters a number of other facilities within the harbor complex including the refined products loading berths, coal terminal, break bulk and the proposed container cargoes.


Portugal; breakwater; breakwater rehabilitation

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