William F. Baird, D.D. Davidson, Billy Edge, Orville T. Magoon, Charles I. Rauw, Donald Treadwell


The standard design for a rubble-mound breakwater as reported in recent text books and manuals has consisted of a core of rubble quarry-run that is protected from wave action by two layers of relatively large quarried stone or concrete units. Filter layers of intermediate size stone are recommended beneath the armour layer to prevent loss of the core material through the armour. The pioneering work of Hudson provides coefficients for a formula that allowed widespread use of this design concept throughout the world. A breakwater of this form tends to require the smallest volume of stone; however, it may not represent the least cost structure for a specific location because of the cost and availability of local materials. Recently, design engineers and hydraulic laboratories have given considerable attention to alternative forms of rubble mound structures. The objective of this work has been to minimize cost while maintaining the same or improved level of stability when the breakwater is subjected to extreme wave conditions. Principally, emphasis has been given to the utilization of locally available quarried stone and to maximizing the use of the full yield of a local quarry. This has required the design of breakwaters using smaller armour stone and a wider range of sizes than was used in the more conventional breakwater. These designs have also given consideration to the realities of construction and the limitation of construction equipment on the assumption that cost savings will be achieved with relatively simple construction methods. Clearly the use of smaller armour stones requires a change in other properties or characteristics of the armour layer, compared to a conventional design, in order to achieve the same stability. The principal characteristics of a berm breakwater are the high permeability of the armour-layer and the significantly larger volume of armour. Berm breakwaters generally consist of a relatively large and permeable mass of armour stone (of smaller size than required for a conventional design).


breakwater; breakwater design; berm breakwater; breakwater construction

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