Bas Hofland, Mirek Kaminski, Guido Wolters


This paper treats new large scale measurements of pressure fields on a vertical wall under wave impacts. These measurements were done in collaboration with the Joint Industry Project Sloshel, aimed at sloshing in LNG tanks. Measurements are presented with a relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. The impacts are created by wave focussing at the wall. By changing the focal point with respect to the wall, the impact type was altered. The influence of the impact type on the pressures and forces on the wall at large scale is thus studied.


vertical wall breakwater; large scale experiments; wave impacts

Full Text:



Bagnold, R.A., Interim Report on Wave Research, Journal Inst. Civ. Eng., 12, 202-226, 1938/1939.

Blackmore P.A. & Hewson P., Experiments on full-scale wave impact pressures, Coastal Engineering, 8, 331-346, 1984.

Bullock G.N., Hewson P., Crawford A.R., Bird P.A.D., 2000. Field and laboratory measurements of wave loads on vertical breakwaters, Proc. Coastal Structures 99, Santander/Spain, 613-621

Bullock G., Obhrai C., Wolters G., Müller G., Peregrine H. & Bredmose H., 2004, Characteristics and design implications of breaking wave impacts, Proc. Int. Conf. Coastal Engineering, Lisbon.

Bullock, G.N., C. Obhrai, D.H. Peregrine, H. Bredmose. 2007. Violent breaking wave impacts. Part 1: Results from large-scale regular wave tests on vertical and sloping walls. Coastal Engineering 54. 602–617.

Chan, E.S. 1994. Mechanics of deep water plunging-wave impacts on vertical structures. Coastal Engineering, 22. p 115-133.

Clauss, G.F. 2002. Dramas of the sea: episodic waves and their impact on offshore structures. Applied Ocean Research 24, 147–161.

Cooker M.J. & Peregrine D.H., 1995. Pressure-Impulse theory for liquid impact problems, J. Fluid Mech., 297, 193-214.

Cuomo, G., Allsop, W., Bruce, T., Pearson, J. 2010. Breaking wave loads at vertical seawalls and breakwaters. Coastal Engineering 57. 424–439

De Rouville, A., Besson, P. and Petry, P., 1938. Etat actuel des études intemationales sur les efforts dus aux lames. Ann. Ponts Chaussées, 108(I1): 5-113.

Goda Y., 2000, Random Seas and Design of Maritime Structures, World Scientific Publ., Singapore, 443 p. PMCid:2144556

Goring, D & Raichlen, F. (1980). The generation of long waves in the laboratory. Proc. 17th Coastal Engineering Conference, ASCE, Vol. 1. pp 763 – 783.

Hull, P., Müller, G. 2002. An investigation of breaker heights, shapes and pressures. Ocean Engineering 29 pp. 59–79.

Kaminski, M.L., H. Bogaert, 2009. Full Scale Sloshing Impact Tests. ISOPE conference. Osaka

Kirby, JT & Dalrymple, RA (1986) An approximate model for nonlinear dispersion in monochromatic wave propagation models. Coastal Engineering 9.

Lamb, H. (1932) Hydrodynamics. 5th ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Lugni C., Brocchini M., Faltinsen O.M., 2006, Wave impact loads: The role of the flip-through, Phys. of Fluids, 18 (12).

Minikin R.R., Wind, Waves and Maritime Structures, Charles Griffin a. Co. Ltd., London, 1950 (and 2nd edition 1963)

Oumeraci, H., Klammer, P., Partenscky, H.W., 1993. Classification of breaking wave loads on vertical structures. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, ASCE 119 (4), 381–397.

Oumeraci, H.; Kortenhaus, A.; Allsop,W.; de Groot,M. et al., 2001. Probabilistic Design Tools for Vertical Breakwaters, A.A. Balkema Publishers, Lisse.

Peregrine, D.H. 2003. Water-Wave Impact On Walls. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 35:23–43.

Stevenson T., The design and construction of harbours, 2nd edition, Edinburgh, UK,1874

Van den Boomgaard, M. (2003) Wave focussing in a laboratory flume. MSc thesis. Delft University of Technology. Dept. Geosciences and Hydraulic Engineering.