Jose Carlos Borrero, Shaw T Mead, Andrew Moores


The use of large, sand filled geotextile containers for the construction of offshore structures is gaining acceptance as a cost effective method of submerged breakwater or reef construction. This method of construction is partuicularly well suited for multipurpose structures where the intent is to provide breakwater-like wave attenuation and shore protection while at the same time providing recreational amenities such as ecological enhancment or surfing. Because the materials and methods used in these structures is relatively new, design guidance is lacking. This paper discusses the general stability considerations for submerged structures constructed from sand filled geotextile containers (SFC’s) and describes a method of assessing container stability through the use of numerical models and empirically derived stability formulae. The paper also describes lessons learned from case studies of four very differnt examples of this type of construction.


submerged breakwater; geotextile; artificial reef; stability; low-crested breakwater

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