Using relationship management to legitimate the monarchy: An analysis of the reign of King Juan Carlos I of Spain

César García

Resumen


Abstract

 

This article explores the management of relationships by King Juan Carlos I of Spain to legitimate the monarchy as an institution and build a new democracy after Franco’s death in 1975. The high level of public support during most of his reign shows there is a correlation between good relationship management and the loyalty of the subjects. Only when some basic relationship management principles of mutual benefit, such as trust and openness with his subjects, were violated the level of support of Juan Carlos I, and the monarchy as an institution started to decline. Nonetheless, the value of relationship management has proved durable since the new monarch, Felipe VI, was able to recover in a relatively short period of time the public support that Juan Carlos I enjoyed in the past. This fact indicates that even in the case of disruptive monarchies, such as Spain, the power of relationship management has shown effectiveness to legitimate the institution. However, at the same time it also points out that in a public opinion regime monarchies have to show exemplarity and that involves not only to create mutual benefit for the citizenship through good deeds, since Juan Carlos I always behaved professionally as a business and diplomatic representative, but that there is feeling of trust between the monarch and the subjects.


 


Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


References

Balmer, J. M. T. (2006). A resource-based view of the British monarchy as a corporate

brand. International studies of management and organization, 37(4), 20-44.

Balmer, J. M. T. (2011). Corporate heritage identities, corporate heritage brands and the

multiple heritage identities of the British Monarchy. European Journal of

Marketing, 45(9/10), 1380-1398.

Balmer, J. M. T. (2011). Corporate heritage brands and the precepts of corporate heritage

brand management: Insights from the British Monarchy on the eve of the royal

wedding of Prince William (April 2011) and Queen Elizabeth II’s Diamond

Jubilee (1952-2012). Journal of Brand Management, 18(8), 517-544.

Balmer, J. M. T., & Greyser, S. A. (2003). Revealing the corporation. Perspectives on

identity, image, reputation, corporate branding, and corporate-level marketing.

New York: Routledge.

Balmer, J., Greyser, S. A., & Urde, M. (2006). The Crown as a corporate Brand: Insights

from monarchies. Journal of brand management, 14, 137-161.

Benoit, W. L. (1995). Accounts, excuses and apologies: A Theory of Image Restoration

Strategies. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Benoit, W. L. (1997). Image repair discourse and crisis communication. Public Relations

Review, 23, 177-186.

Benoit, W. L. & Brinson, S. L. (1999). Queen Elizabeth’s image repair discourse: Insensitive royal or compassionate queen? Public Relations Review, 25(2), 145-156.

Bruning, S. D., & Ledingham, J. A. (1999). Relationships between organizations and publics: Development of a multi-dimensional organization-public relationship scale. Public Relations Review, 25, 157-170.

Burns, T. (2007). La monarquía necesaria. Pasado, presente y futuro de la Corona en España. Barcelona: Planeta.

Calvo, J. M. (2005, April, 11). Zapatero no es bienvenido aquí. El País. Retrieved on

November 29, 2015 from http://elpais.com/diario/2005/04/11/espana/1113170401_850215.html

Canel, M. J., & García, Angeles. (2013). El símbolo imputado. El País. Retrieved on April 10, 2013 from http://elpais.com/elpais/2013/04/06/opinion/1365262015_268331.html

Carvajal, D. (2013, February 21). Investigation of Spanish duke draws royals into scandal. The New York Times. Retrieved on May 16, 2015 from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/22/world/europe/embezzlement-scandal-threatens-spains-royal-family.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Carvajal, D., & Minder, R. (2012). Chastened King seeks redemption, for Spain and his monarchy. The New York Times. Retrieved on April 10, 2015 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/29/world/europe/juan-carlos-i-seeks-redemption-for-spain-and-monarchy.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS). (1983). Estudio CIS 1357. Visita de SS. MM. los reyes de España a Uruguay. Madrid, Spain.

Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS). (1995). Estudio CIS 2201. Barómetro Diciembre 1995. Madrid, Spain. Retrieved on May 23, 2015 from http://www.cis.es/cis/export/sites/default/Archivos/Marginales/2200_2219/2201/e220100.html

Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS). (1998). Estudio CIS 2278. Barómetro Febrero 1998. Madrid, Spain. Retrieved on May 23, 2015 from

http://www.cis.es/cis/export/sites/default/Archivos/Marginales/2260_2279/2278/e227800.html

Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS). (2004). Estudio CIS 2570. Barómetro Julio 2004. Madrid, Spain. Retrieved on May 23, 2015 from

http://www.cis.es/cis/export/sites/default/Archivos/Marginales/2560_2579/2570/e257000.html

Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS). (2006). Estudio CIS 2657. Barómetro Octubre 2006. Madrid, Spain. Retrieved on May 23, 2015 from

http://www.cis.es/cis/export/sites/default/Archivos/Marginales/2640_2659/2657/e265700.html

Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS). (2008). Estudio CIS 2778. Barómetro Noviembre 2008. Madrid, Spain. Retrieved on May 23, 2015 from

http://www.cis.es/cis/export/sites/default/Archivos/Marginales/2760_2779/2778/e277800.html

Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS). (2010). Estudio CIS 2853. Barómetro Noviembre 2010. Madrid, Spain. Retrieved on May 23, 2015 from

http://www.cis.es/cis/export/sites/default/Archivos/Marginales/2840_2859/2853/e285300.html

Constitución Española. (1978). Madrid, Tecnos.

Cutlip, M., Center, A. H., & Broom, G. M. (1994). Effective public relations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Dozier, D. M., Grunig, L. A., & Grunig, J. E. (1995). Manager’s guide to excellence in public relations and communication management. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

El Economista. (2012, July 18). El rey: ‘Cualquier otra persona estaría aún de baja pero yo tengo que currar.’ Retrieved on May 14, 2015 from http://ecodiario.eleconomista.es/espana/noticias/4128028/07/12/El-Rey-Cualquier-otra-persona-estaria-aun-de-baja-pero-yo-tengo-que-currar.html

El País. (1984, January 7). Texto del discurso del Rey. El País. Retrieved on April 24, 2015 from http://elpais.com/diario/1984/01/07/espana/442278003_850215.html

García, C. (2011). Sex scandals: A cross-cultural analysis of image repair strategies in

the cases of Bill Clinton and Silvio Berlusconi. Public Relations Review, 37, 292-296.

Granados, J. A. (2010). Breve historia de los borbones españoles. Madrid: Nowtilus.

Hames, T., & Leonard, M. (1998). Modernising the Monarchy. London: Demos.

Ipsos Mori. (2013). Monarchy/Royal family trends – Monarchy V. Republic 1993-2012.

Retrieved on May 29, 2015 from http://www.ipsosmori.com/researchpublications/researcharchive/poll.aspx?oItemId=122&view=wide

Hernández, A. (2010). Suárez y el rey. Madrid: Espasa Calpe.

Junquera, N. (2013, May 3). La monarquía obtiene la peor nota de su historia: 3.68. El

País. Retrieved on May 21, 2015 from

http://politica.elpais.com/politica/2013/05/03/actualidad/1367578864_651105.html

Lasexta.com. (2013, March 11). Desde 1982 no se pregunta a los españoles si prefieren monarquía o república. Retrieved on November 28, 2015 from http://www.lasexta.com/programas/el-objetivo/noticias/1982-pregunta-espanoles-prefieren-monarquia-republica_2013110300391.html

Ledingham, J. A., & Brunning, S. D. (1998). Relationship management and public relations: Dimensions of an organization-public relationship. Public Relations Review, 24(1), 55-65.

Ledingham, J. A., & Brunning, S. D. (2000). A longitudinal study of organization-public relationship dimensions: Defining the role of communication in the practice of relationship management. In J. A. Ledingham & S. D. Brunning (Eds.), Public relations as relationship management: A relational approach to the study and practice of public relations (pp. 55-69). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ledingham, J. A. (2003). Explicating relationship management as a general theory of public relations. Journal of Public Relations Research, 15 (2), 181-198.

Ledingham, J. A. (2006). Relationship management: A general theory of public

relations. In C. H. Botan & V. Hazleton (Eds.) Public relations theory II (pp.

-484). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Lisbona, J. A. (1993, November 7). Rey de Jerusalén. El País.

Nye, J. S., Jr. (2004). Soft power. The means to success in world politics. New York: Public Affairs Press.

Minder, R. (2013a, April 15). In break with tradition, it’s open season on the royal

family. The New York Times. Retrieved on April 16, 2015 from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/16/world/europe/open-season-on-spains-royal-family.html

Minder, R. (2013b, February 24). Royal son-in-law to testify in Spanish fraud

inquiry. The New York Times. Retrieved on May 16, 2015 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/24/world/europe/royal-son-in-law-to-testify-in-spanish-fraud-inquiry.html

Onega, F. (2015). El hombre que pudo reinar. Barcelona: Plaza & Janés.

Oppenheimer, W. (2012, November 9). “El rey Juan Carlos ya no es el bombero de la

democracia.” El País. Retrieved on November 29, 2015 from http://cultura.elpais.com/cultura/2012/11/09/actualidad/1352488684_954949.html

Piggott, R., Morgan, N., & Pritchard, A. (2004). New Zealand and The lord of the

rings: Leveraging public and media relations. In N. Morgan, A. Pritchard & R. Pride (Eds.), Destination branding: Creating the unique destination proposition (pp. 207-226). Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

Preston, P. (2004). Juan Carlos. Steering Spain from dictatorship to democracy. New

York: W. W. Norton & Company.

PRSA (2012) What is public relations? PRSA’s widely accepted definition. Retrieved

on November 29, 2015 at:

http://www.prsa.org/AboutPRSA/PublicRelationsDefined/#.U7G5V6WBNtc

Qué!. (2012, April 16). Mercedes Milá sobre la foto del Rey con el elefante muerto en

Bostwana: hiere, daña, agrede. Retrieved on May 14, 2015 from http://www.que.es/ultimas-noticias/sociedad/201204161002-mercedes-mila-sobre-foto-elefante-cont.html

Remírez de Ganuza, C. (2015, June 15). El rey recupera el apoyo de los españoles a la

monarquía. El Mundo. Retrieved on November 29, 2015 from http://www.elmundo.es/espana/2015/06/15/557dc06f22601d30648b457e.html

Romero, A. (2012, November 18). El Rey pide perdón por su viaje de caza en

Botsuana: “Lo siento mucho. No volverá a ocurrir.” El Mundo. Retrieved on

May 13, 2015 from http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2012/04/18/espana/1334732412.html - comentarios

Szondi, G. (2010). From image management to relationship building: A public

relations approach to nation branding. Place branding and public diplomacy,

(4), 333-343.

Taylor, M. (2008). Toward a relational theory of public diplomacy. Paper presented

at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th annual convention. San Diego, CA.

Toharia, J. J. (2011, December 22). ¿Monarquía? ¿República? El País. Retrieved on

November 28, 2015 from http://blogs.elpais.com/metroscopia/2011/12/monarquia-republica.html

Toharia, J. J. (2013, April 10). Qué está en crisis y qué está manteniendo España. El País.

Retrieved on May 29, 2015 from http://blogs.elpais.com/metroscopia/2013/04/que-esta-en-crisis-y-que-esta-manteniendo-a-españa.html

United Press International. (1986, April 24). Historic speech in Parliament. Retrieved

on May 9, 2015 from http://localhost/from http/::articles.chicagotribune.com:1986-04-24:news:8601290889_1_queen-sofia-king-juan-carlos-britain-and-spain

Van Dyke, M., & Vercic, Dejan. (2009). Public Relations, public diplomacy, and strategic Communications: An International model of conceptual

convergence. In K. Sriramesh & D. Vercic (Eds.), The global public relations handbook. Theory, research, and practice (pp. 822-843). New York: Routledge.

Yarnoz, C. (1985, January 7). El Rey afirma que la debilidad o el aislamiento de

España “equivalen al suicidio colectivo”. El País. Retrieved on April 24, 2015 from http://elpais.com/diario/1985/01/07/espana/473900404_850215.html