Toxicology basics: Common toxicants in bovine medicine
Bovines are the most commonly poisoned livestock species. Their exposure to a variety of environments ranging from dry lots to grass- or timber-laden pastures accompanied with their curious nature predispose them to numerous toxins. At times, intoxications can be difficult for practitioners to discern as the clinical presentation of intoxicated cattle can imitate signs associated with infectious agents. The objective of this paper is to provide a review of several of the most common toxicities associated with bovine medicine and to aid practitioners in recognition of potential sources, clinical signs and lesions, diagnostics and treatment related to these toxins.