Evaluation of sperm morphology: What the spermiogram is telling us
Evaluation of sperm morphology is a critical component of complete male breeding soundness examinations in all species. Through the development of spermiograms, veterinarians can develop a diagnosis for the visualized disruption in spermatogenesis and the likely probability for recovery. Consequently, the veterinarian and producer are able to engage in more meaningful conversation regarding realistic expectations for the future breeding status of a bull. These conversations add value to the common diagnoses that are associated with breeding soundness exams such as satisfactory potential breeder, deferred potential breeder or unsatisfactory potential breeder.