Review and update
Bovine practise in the 21st century has changed from an emphasis on individual animal diagnosis and treatment to a diagnosis and management of a herd or a cohort of that herd. That change has meant a more comprehensive examination of the animals, environment, and the cattle management on that premises is indicated. A system of diagnostic support in a herd situation is even more important and extensive than on an individual bovine. A necessity for a herd diagnosis is a site visit and the creation of a database that includes a history, individual animal exams and their diagnostic support, necropsies, and environmental scans. A definitive clinicalpathological diagnosis is often not made, but a good clinical or epidemiological diagnosis may lead to improved cattle management that will eliminate or minimize the specific herd problem.