FACTORS INFLUENCING AND LIMITING THE LOCATION OF SEWER OCEAN OUTFALLS

A. M. Rawn, F. R. Bowerman

Abstract


A sewer outfall, or as it is commonly called and will be hereinafter termed, an ocean outfall, is customarily a pipe line extending seaward from the shore and designed to convey sewage and industrial wastes, treated or otherwise, to such a location offshore as is hoped, or expected, will prevent contamination of the nearby littoral waters, protect recreational facilities in the vicinity, and result in a disposal of the contaminating wastes without nuisance or menace to public health. Protection of aquatic life is at times the most important consideration. Unless the cost of construction is very great or the ocean outfall rests upon a physically insecure or inadequate foundation, this method of final disposal of sewage and industrial waste is probably the most economical to be found because the ocean water and its dissolved components, together with certain microscopic and macroscopic marine life, are able to complete the destruction of even the most noxious wastes without difficulty if afforded the properly controlled opportunity. Thus, the presence of the ocean in or near the "front yard" of a municipality offers an almost irresistible temptation to dispose therein of the sewage of the community.

Keywords


outfall; pipeline foundation; pipeline erosion

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