James W. Dunham


The use of diagrams to indicate the effects of refraction and diffraction of ordinary wind waves and swell in offshore areas is by no means an innovation in coastal and harbor engineering. Refraction diagrams in particular have been used in various forms by engineers in the United States and in Europe for more than a decade. The principles and procedures for constructing refraction and diffraction diagrams have been developed by academic research and investigation. The purposes of this paper are (1) to review briefly these principles and procedures, and (2) to describe their practical application by the Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District, Department of the Army.


refraction, shoaling

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