LOADING OF VERTICAL WALLS BY OVERTOPPING BORES USING PRESSURE AND FORCE SENSORS - A LARGE SCALE MODEL STUDY

Karunya Ramachandran, Rebeca Roldan Genzalez, Hocine Oumeraci, Stefan Schimmels, Matthias Kudella, Koen Van Doorslaer, Julien De Rouck, Tom Versluys, Koen Trouw

Abstract


This study is based on the data obtained from tests carried out in the Large Wave Flume (Grosser Wellenkanal (GWK)) in Hannover in the frame of a joint research project of Ghent University (Belgium) and Forschungszentrum Küste (FZK, Germany). The goal of the research project is to determine the wave induced loads on vertical storm walls located at the end of overtopped dike, which are designed to protect coastal cities from overtopping and floods. The loads resulting from waves overtopping the dike and impacting the vertical wall as a bore are measured by means of both force and pressure sensors. This paper describes the results of pressure and force records at the vertical wall, including a comparative analysis of the overall forces obtained by pressure integration and force sensors for two different wall setups: Fully blocked wall and partially blocked wall.

Keywords


storm wall; wave overtopping; overtopping bore; impact loads; layer thickness; residual water layer

References


Bagnold, R.A., 1939. Interim report on wave-pressure research. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers 12, 201–226.

Bullock, G.N., Obhrai, C., Peregrine, D.H., Bredmose, H., 2007. Violent breaking wave impacts Part 1: results from large-scale regular wave tests on vertical and sloping walls. Coastal Eng. 54 (8), 602–617.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2006.12.00

CEM, 2003. Coastal Engineering Manual, Part VI, Chapter 5, Engineer Manual 1110-2-1100, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC.

De Rouck, J., Van Doorslaer, K., Versluys, T., Ramachandran, K., Schimmels, S., Kudella, M., Trouw, K., 2012. 'Full scale wave impact tests on a vertical wall in the large wave flume in Hannover', ICCE (accepted).

Hattori, M., Arami, A., Yui, T., 1994. Wave impact pressure on vertical walls under breaking waves of various type. Coastal Eng. 22 (1–2), 79–114.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3839(94)90049-3

Kisacik, D., Troch, P., Van Bogaert, P., 2010. Experimental results of breaking wave impact on a vertical wall with an overhanging horizontal cantilever slab. 32nd International Conference on Coastal Engineering (ICCE), Shanghai, China.

Kisacik, D., Troch, P., Van Bogaert, P., 2012. Description of loading conditions due to violent wave impacts on a vertical structure with an overhanging horizontal cantilever slab. Coastal Engineering. 60 (1), pp. 201–226.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2011.10.001

Oumeraci, H., Klammer P., Partenscky, H.W., 1993. Classification of breaking wave loads on vertical structures. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, ASCE, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 381-397.http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(1993)119:4(381)

Oumeraci, H., Kortenhaus, A., Allsop, N.W.H., De Groot, M.B., Crouch, R.S., Vrijling, J.K., Voortman, H.G., 2001. Probabilistic design tools for vertical breakwaters. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Balkema, 392 p.

Peregrine, D.H., 2003. Water-wave impact on walls. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 35, 23–43.http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.fluid.35.101101.161153

Ramachandran, K., Roldan Genzalez, R., Schimmels, S., Oumeraci, H., Van Doorslaer, K., 2012. 'Impact loads on a vertical wall due to overtopping bore – Large scale physical model experiments'. Coastlab 2012, Ghent, Belgium.

Van Doorslaer, K., De Rouck, J., Trouw, K., van der Meer, J.W., Schimmels, S., 2012. 'Wave forces on storm walls, small and large scale experiments', Proceedings of COPEDEC VIII, Chennai, India.

Verwaest, T., Vanpoucke, P., Willems, M., & Mulder, T. D. (2010). Waves overtopping a wide-crested dike. Coastal Engineering 2010, (pp. 1-9).


Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.