NUMERICAL MODELING OF COASTAL INUNDATION AND SEDIMENTATION BY STORM SURGE, TIDES, AND WAVES AT NORFOLK, VIRGINIA, USA

Honghai Li, Lihwa Lin, Kelly A. Burks-Copes

Abstract


A nearshore hydrodynamic and sediment transport model was developed to simulate synthetic storms with design SLR scenarios surrounding the military installations in Norfolk, Virginia. Foreseeable risk and effect of storm surge damage accompanied by waves, tides, and Sea Level Rise (SLR) were examined. The final results include the evaluation of impacts for five SLR (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m) and three storm conditions (50-yr, 100-yr return tropical storms, and a winter storm). Associated with the storm surge and SLR, extensive inundation will occur at the Naval Station Norfolk, approximately 70-80% of the Naval Station Norfolk under the 2-m SLR scenario. The calculated morphology changes indicate that the sediment movement mostly occurs in the navigation channels and the maximum depth changes are more than 3.0 m along the channels. The bed volume changes show that the storms induce a net volume loss within the channel area, an indication of channel flushing in the study area.

Keywords


storm surge; sea level rise; waves; coastal inundation; coastal modeling; coastal sedimentation

References


Burks-Copes, K. A., and E. J. Russo. 2011. Risk Quantification for Sustaining Coastal Military Installation Assets and Mission Capabilities. Interim Technical Report. U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Environmental Laboratory, Vicksburg, MS.

Buttolph, A. M., C. W. Reed, N. C. Kraus, N. Ono, M. Larson, B. Camenen, H. Hanson, T. Wamsley, and A. K. Zundel. 2006. Two-dimensional depth-averaged circulation model CMS-M2D: Version 3.0, Report 2, sediment transport and morphology change. Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory Technical Report ERDC/CHL-TR-06-7. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center.

Downer, C. W. and F. L. Ogden, 2004. GSSHA: A model for simulating diverse streamflow generating processes. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 9(3):161-174.http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0699(2004)9:3(161)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. Fourth assessment report. Available online at: 2.0.CO;2">http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<0882:AECWSC>2.0.CO;2

Lin, L., Z. Demirbilek, H. Mase, J. Zheng, and F. Yamada. 2008. CMS-Wave: A nearshore spectral wave processes model for coastal inlets and navigation projects. ERDC CHL. Vicksburg, MS.

Mase, H. 2001. Multidirectional random wave transformation model based on energy balance equation. Coastal Engineering Journal 43(4):317–337.http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0578563401000396

McAlpin, T., T. Wamsley, and M. Cialone. 2011 (In Press). Methodology for modeling the effects of sea level rise with the ADCIRC numerical model. ERDC/CHL TN-CHETN-IV-x. Vicksburg, MS: U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center.

PMCid:3092757

Mclean, R. F., A. Tsyban, A. Burkett, J. O. Codignotto, D. L. Forbes, N. Mimura, R. J. Beamish, and V. Ittekkot. 2001. Coastal zones and marine ecosystems. In: Mccarthy, J. J., O. F. Canziani, N. A. Leary, D. J. Dokken, and K. S. White, (eds.), Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 343–380.

Melby, J. A., E. F. Thompson, M. A. Cialone, J. M. Smith, L. E. Borgman, Z. Demirbilek, J. L. Hanson, and L. Lin. 2005. Life-cycle analysis of mid-bay and Poplar Island projects, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory Technical Report ERDC/CHL-TR-05-12. Vicksburg, Mississippi: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center.

Pfeffer, W. T., J. T. Harper, and S. O'Neel. 2008. Kinematic constraints on glacier contributions to 21st-century sea-level rise. Science 321:1340-1343.http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1159099

PMid:18772435

Slawson, T. R, and J. T. Brokaw. 1995. Development of a three dimensional in-structure shock model (ISS3D). ARA Technical Report. Vicksburg, MS: Applied Research Associates.

Smith, E.. 1999. Atlantic and east coast hurricanes 1900–98: a frequency and intensity study for the twenty-first century. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 80(12):2717-2720.http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<2717:AAECHA>2.0.CO;2

Taylor, L. A., B. W. Eakins, K. S. Carignan, R. R. Warnken, T. Sazonova, D. C. Schoolcraft, and G. F. Sharman. 2008. Digital Elevation Model of Virginia Beach, Virginia: procedures, data sources and analysis. NOAA Technical Memorandum NESDIS NGDC-7. National Geophysical Data Geophysics Division, Boulder, Colorado.

Zundel, A. K., 2006. Surface-water modeling system reference manual – Version 9. 2. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Environmental Modeling Research Laboratory.


Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.