APPLICATION OF PHYSICAL MODEL IN LONG WAVE STUDIES FOR THE PORT OF LONG BEACH

Ying-Keung Poon, Frederic Raichlen, James Kimo Walker

Abstract


The increase in container shipping demand has lead to rapid expansion of container terminal facilities. The Port of Long Beach have expanded their operations by landfills in areas more exposed to waves in less protected areas of the harbors. At the same time, container ships have been increasing in size and more rapid cycle time of cargo transfers by container cranes have demanded tranquil berths to minimize vessel motions. The availability of tranquil water and the need for faster crane cycle times have been in conflict. The Port of Long Beach constructed a container terminal near the entrance to the harbor in 1992 for Maersk shipping lines. The 2,300 ft wharf is backed by over 100 acre of terminal and gate area and has four post panamax size container cranes. The terminal operates with a trucking and rail facility. Immediately after construction of the terminal in 1992, the first ships of over 900-ft size experienced excessive ship motions. These motions produced a surge measured up to 10 ft with periods on the order of one minute. Sway motions were about 20 to 40 seconds, and when coupled with the surge caused damage to fenders, represented a safety issue by mooring line breakage, and substantially reduced container crane productivity.

Keywords


Long Beach; physical model; long waves; port

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