GROYNES ON THE EAST FRISIAN ISLANDS: HISTORY AND EXPERIENCES

Hans Kunz

Abstract


Groynes can be a valuable shore-protection structure. An example for this fact are the 'Strombuhnen' ('stream groynes') which have been constructed on most of the East Frisian islands throughout the last hundred years. These groynes are integrated in an engineering coastal protection system, which includes seawalls, dune revetments, 'Strandbuhnen' ('beach groynes') and artificial beach-restoration. The modern approach of society in Germany (and many other countries) towards nature preservation and integrated management of the coastal zone discourages use of 'hard' constructions. However, there are several demands of society, for which we have to concede, that properly designed 'stream groynes' can function effectively and economically; under certain conditions; this can also be the case for 'beach groynes'. According to the stated demands, these constructions have, more or less, the target to govern natural processes; hence they are principally objectable from an environmental point of view.

Keywords


groin; East Frisian

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