K.J. MacIntosh, W.F. Baird


At the 19th ICE Conference in Houston in 1984 an alternative concept for the design of rubble mound breakwaters was introduced. This concept has the objective of providing a least cost structure by optimizing the use of locally available materials and utilizing simple construction procedures. Contractors' bids demonstrated that significant cost savings could be achieved, when compared to the cost of traditional designs. Considerable prototype experience has now been obtained with this concept of breakwaters. Breakwaters have been built using the concept in Canada, the United States, and Iceland since 1984 and have been subjected to storms and ice action. Prototype observations have supported the performance predicted during the design process. In this paper surveys of a breakwater taken after construction and after storm action are presented. In addition to wave action, this breakwater has also been subjected to extensive ice action. The response of the breakwater has been monitored and observed and is discussed.


prototype experience; breakwater; rubble mound breakwater

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