BEACH DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN HEADLAND BREAKWATERS IN A LOW WAVE ENERGY ENVIRONMENT, PASIR RIS, SINGAPORE

S.Y. Chew, S.K. Ho, P.P. Wong, Y.Y. Leong

Abstract


One of the function of the offshore breakwater is to protect the coast from wave action. By dissipating the wave energy along its entire length, the breakwater causes sediments in its lee to deposit and a shore salient is formed. If the offshore breakwater are placed in a series along a coast with a gentle offshore slope and a substantial littoral drift tombolo will form behind the breakwaters between which bays will be sculptured by waves to form stable shapes (1). These attached breakwater would thus form a series of artificial headlands. In nature, beaches between headlands are influenced by the position of the headlands. Where the headlands are closely spaced and a limited sediment supply exists, small pockets beaches are formed. Where the headlands are far apart and an adequate sediment supply exists, long and wide beaches are formed. Generally, between these two extremes most beaches between natural headlands take a shape that is related to the predominant wave approach; on the downcoast sector is a long and straight beach, while on the upcoast end is curbed beach. Silvester (2) in his model study established a relationship between the logarithmic spiral constant ( °^ ) and the angle of predominant wave approach ( & ). A quasi-permanent shape was reached when waves broke simultaneously around the model bay. As it is difficult to measure the curve sector in nature, Silvester and Ho (3) suggested the use of an indentation ratio to relate the bay's shape to wave approach.

Keywords


beach developement; headland; wave energy; wave environment; Singapore

Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.