THE USE OF SAND IN BREAKWATER DESIGN

L.V. Van Damme, P.A. Kerchaert, R.L. Capentier, J.N. De Rouck, A. Bernard

Abstract


The design scheme of the Zeebrugge Outer Harbour, Belgium, consists of two breakwaters protruding into the sea as far as 1,750 m beyond the existing mole or 3,000 m out from the coastline. The west outer breakwater is 4,280 m long, the east breakwater runs 4,030 m out from the sea-wall. The east outer harbour will accommodate terminals for liquid bulk products such as LNG. The west outer harbour will provide space to install two harbour basins to suit general cargo, hazardous cargo, container and ferry traffic. In the paper emphasis is put on the use of sand in the design of the breakwaters, firstly as part of the foundation by replacing the little resistant top layers by dumped sand, and secondly as part of the core, by dumping sand above the original sea-bottom. In as far as proposed criteria were not fulfilled, the dumped sand had to be compacted. Two methods are discussed : compaction by vibrating needles and compaction using explosives.

Keywords


breakwater; breakwater design; sand breakwater

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