Dennis G. Markle, D.D. Davidson


A survey of existing Corps breakwaters with concrete armor units and hydraulic model tests of rubble-mound breakwater trunk sections protected with dolosse were conducted to determine the effects of broken armor units on breakwater stability and to establish some criteria by which decisions can be made as to when maintenance and rehabilitation work should be initiated on damaged concrete armor unit cover layers. The survey revealed that where good engineering designs were used, prototype breakage has been random and has not exceeded about 3 percent of the total number of units placed. The model tests, conducted with both breaking and nonbreaking waves with no overtopping, revealed the percent breakage can be quite a bit higher than 3 percent before the overall functional integrity of dolos cover layers is affected.


armor unit; concrete armor; armor breakage

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