E. Loewy, K.G. Witthaus, R.J. Maddrell, J.P. Wood


Sand bitumen was used in the core of a rubble mound breakwater to form an impermeable barrier, essentially to inhibit the recirculation of warm water exhausted from a power station outlet back into the intake pumps. The core had a secondary advantage in permitting the placing of bitumen grouting to the rock on the lee face of the breakwater to stabilise it against wave overtopping. The paper describes the reasons which led to the adoption of this unique method on a very exposed coastline. It also outlines some of the measured properties of the sand bitumen and the methods used and experience gained in its mixing and placing. The sand bitumen, which has not to our knowledge been used for this purpose and as a core material previously, is proving to be successful.


breakwater; sandcore breakwater; sand bitumen core

Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.