SPILLING BREAKERS, BORES, AND HYDRAULIC JUMPS

D.H. Peregrine, I.A. Svendsen

Abstract


On gently sloping beaches, almost all water waves break. After the initial breaking the water motion usually appears quite chaotic. However, for a moderate time, for example two or three times the descent time of the "plunge" in a plunging breaker, the flow can be relatively well organised despite the superficial view which is largely of spray and bubbles. If waves continue to break the breaking motion, or "white water" soon becomes fully turbulent and the mean motions become quasisteady. A reasonable definition of a quasi-steady wave is one which changes little during the time a water particle takes to pass through it. We exclude water particles which may become trapped in a surface roller and surf along with the wave. At this stage in its development a wave on a beach may be described as a spilling breaker or as a bore. In fact, there is a range of these waves from those with a little white water at the crest to examples where the whole front of the wave is fully turbulent. In investigating the properties of such waves it is desirable to start by looking at the whole range of related motions. The most obvious extension is to the hydraulic jump; since, in the simplest view, it is equivalent to a bore but in a frame of reference moving with the wave. It is also an example where the mean flow is steady rather than quasisteady.

Keywords


spilling breaker; bore; hydraulic jump

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