Toru Sawaragi, Koichiro Iwata, Masayoshi Kubo


A bottom friction is an effective factor which will prove the deformation of progressive waves in shallow water, and many investigators have obtained the friction coefficients from field observations. However, they have not considered the effect of turbulent loss due to sand ripple at a sea bottom. The authors, first of all, study on the friction coefficient for artificial fixed ripple by using the boundary layer theory of rough turbulence, and a new formula on the friction coefficient is proposed. The proposed friction coefficients are compared with Zhukovets' experimental results which were performed on a movable bed, and it is found that the theoretical friction coefficients for artificial fixed ripple have to be modified in order to apply for the natural beach. Lastly, the wave deformation due to the bottom friction on the movable bed is calculated by the modified friction coefficient and the effect of bottom friction on the wave deformation is discussed.


friction; friction factor; sea bottom; bed

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